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40 Cards in this Set

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In the fasted state, what happens with glucagon?
Goes up.
In the fasted state, what happens with epinephrine?
Goes up.
In the fasted state what happens with insulin?
Decreases
Triglyceride breakdown requires the stimulation from what molecules?
Glucagon
Epinephrine
What are the generalized sequence of events that occurs with triglyceride breakdown?
1. Intracellular cAMP INCREASES and ACTIVATES protein kinase A.
2. Phosphorylation and activation of hormone sensitive lipase.
3. Degradation of triglyceride to free fatty acids and glycerol.
Post degradation of triglycerides, what happens to FFA and glycerol in the fasted state?
Both will diffuse into blood, where FFA will bind to serum albumin. Glycerol is soluble.
In the liver, glucagon and epinephrine stimulate WHAT to form WHAT products for what process?
Beta Oxidation
Ketones and Glycerol
Gluconeogenesis
What must happen for hormone sensitive lipase to act?
Phosphorylation of perilipin
What is perilipin?
Protein that coats the lipid droplets in adipocytes
What happens to the majority of the FFA that are mobilized from adipocytes to be taken up by the liver?
In the liver, 60% of FFA is repackaged into lipoproteins and sent back to the adipocytes
Glycerol
What is this?
Addition of each fatty acid on a glycerol requires what kind of energy expenditure?
Two high energy bonds (total of 6 ATP)
T/F - In the fasted state, adipose release just enough FFA for metabolism.
F - In the fasted state, adipose releases more FFA than is needed for metabolism.
Describe the actions oof the liver with extra FFA in the fasted state. x 3
1. Liver RE-ESTERIFIES the fatty acids into triglycerides.
2. PACKAGES the lipid into lipid protein.
3. SECRETES it into bloodstream.
Repackaging FFA ensures what two things?
1. Adequate energy supply
2. Homeostasis of serum lipids in blood
Describe the steps in fatty acid transport to mitochondria. x 4
1. Formation of fatty acy-CoA.
2. Transfer to carnitine to form fatty acyl-carnitine
3. Facilitated diffusion via acyl-carnitine/carnitine transporter.
4. Transfer back to CoA inside mitochondria.
Where would you find Carnitine Acyltransferase I?
On the cytoplasmic face of mitochondria.
Where would you find Carnitine Acyltransferase II?
Inside the mitochondria.
What is the overall point in transferring fatty acid to mitochondria?
To degrade the long fatty acyl-CoA in to Acetyl CoA. Then, feed Acetyl-CoA into the TCA and make ATP in ETC
Usually, Beta oxidation of 1 saturated FFA molecule will produce how many Acetyl-CoA's?
Eight
Usually, Beta oxidation of 1 saturated FFA molecule will lead to how many CO2's?
16 CO2
Usually, Beta oxidation of 1 saturated FFA molecule will lead to how many electrons?
64 e-
What is the major point of beta oxidation?
Fatty acids get cleaved to make Acetyl-CoA
What is needed for beta oxidation of monoUNSATURATED fatty acid?
An isomerase to convert the cis bond to trans.
What is needed for beta oxidation of polyUNSATURATED fatty acid?
Need a reductase and an isomerase.
"When life gives you propionyl-CoA, make".....what?
A TCA intermediate (Succinyl CoA)
When do you get the three carbon molecule, propionyl CoA?
It is the final product in odd-chain fatty acids.
How does biotin play a role in odd chain FA beta oxidation?
Takes propionyl-CoA and converts it a four carbon intermediate via carboxylation.
Under low glucose levels, the brain uses what for food?
ketones
Which ketone is responsible for bad breath?
acetone
Ketones are produced from what molecule and where specifically?
Acetyl CoA

Hepatocyte mitochondria
Describe the general steps in ketone formation in the liver during a fasted state.
1. Gluconeogenesis removes oxaloacetate from TCA.
2. Oxaloacetate removal SLOWS down TCA causing accumulation of acetyl-CoA.
3. Acetyl-CoA is then used to make ketones.
Loss of insulin in IDDM patients, is due to a loss of what and where?
Beta cells in the pancreas.
Accumulation of ketones in blood can lead to what?
ketoacidosis
Ketoacidosis can alter what?
Heme functions

Oxygen transport
What are the presentations of Carnitine deficiency? x 4
1. Hypoketotic Hypoglycemic Encephalopathy.
2. Cardiomyopathy
3. Myopathy
4. GI Dysmotility
What parts are effected by Carnitine deficiency? x 3
1. CNS
2. Skeletal muscle
3. Cardiac muscle
B12 Deficiency causes an accumulation of what molecules? x2
Methylmalonyl-CoA
Homocyteine
5-MethylTHF
B12 deficiency can cause the same kind of anemia as what other disorders? x2
1. Oroticaciduria I
2. Oroticaciduria II
Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency affects what enzymes? x3 from worst symptoms to least.
1. VLCAD (Very Long Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase)
2. MCAD (Medium Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase)
3. SCAD (Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase)