• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/75

Click to flip

75 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two Categories of Lipids
1. Polar
2. Non-polar (Neutral)
Major Categories of Lipids
Triacyl Glycerols
Fatty Acids
Phospholipids
Glycolipids
Sphingolipids
Steroids
Vitamins (ADEK)
Simple Triacyl Glycerol
TG with unsaturated fatty acid
Mixed Triacyl Glycerol
2 or more different fatty acids
Natural Oils
TG with unsaturated fatty acids
Solid Fat
TG with saturated fat
Bio Waxes
-Esters of long chain FA with long chain alcohols
-high melting point
Neutral Lipids
TG
Natural Fats
Natural Oils
Solid Fats
Biological Waxes
Saturated Lipids
No Double Bonds
Non-H2O Soluble
Non-Aqueous
Solid @ room temp
Unsaturated Lipids
Double Bonds
Liquid @ room temp
Fish Oils (omega-3)
Increase Lipoprotein Lipase
Increase FA Oxidation
Inhibits TG Synthesis
Essential FA's
Trans Fats
Not kinked
Solid @ room temp
increase risk for heart disease/type 2 diabetes
Polar Lipid
Contains a Polar group:
Phosphate, Sulfate, Sugar
Amphipathic
A Fat Cell
Can Expand
Great longevity
9 g/Cal
Efficient Storage@ Anhydrous State
Uses of Lipids
Structure -> Phospholipids (membranes)

Communication -> Steroids

Enzyme Cofactors -> Vit. K

Digestion -> Bile Salts

Anti Oxidants -> Vit. E
Strategies for Digestion
1.Emulsification
(Bile Salts/mixing)

2.Solubilization
(detergents)
Primary product of Lipid Digestion

(Digestion of Cholesterol,Phospholipid, TG)
1. FFA
2. 2-monoacylglycerol
3. Cholesterol
Micelle
Form when polar lipids are added to H2O

Polar groups outward facing

Non-polar groups inward facing
Emulsions
Large Lipid Droplets
Visible Cloudiness
No Organized structure
Unstable
Can be stabilized by Emulsifying agents
2 Types of Bile Salts
1.Glycine

2.Taurine
Bile Salts (structure)
Sterol Ring + Taurine/Glycine
Main Function of Bile Salts
Make Micelles

Critical Micelle Conentration (CMC) 2-5mM
Bile Salts
Stored in Gall Bladder
Detergent
Needed for Cholesterol & Vitamin (AEK) Absorption
Degrades Triacyl Glycerol
Pancreatic Lipase
Degrades Cholesteryl Esters
Cholesteryl Ester Hydrolase

(produces Cholesterol + FFA)
Degrades Phospholipids
Phospholipase A2 (Pancreatic Juice)
Pancreatic Lipase
Removes 1&3 carbons making 2-monoacylglycerol

Needs Colipase (produced in pancreas)

Prefers long chain FA (greater than 12 C's)
Phospholipase A2
proenzyme is activated by trypsin

Phospholipase A2 hydrolizes FA @ carbon 2 of phospholipids

makes lysophospholipid (detergents)

remaining FA @ C1 is removed by lysophospholipase.

Lysophospholipase->glycophosphoryl base->feces/excretion
5 main classes of lipoproteins
1.chylomicrons
2.VLDL
3.IDL
4.LDL
5.HDL
Apolipoprotiens
Attach to lipoproteins for transport
Orlistat
Anti-Obesity drug
inhibits pancreatic and gastric lipases
Olestra
artificial fat, not degraded by pancreatic or gastric lipases.
Activates LCAT
Apo-A1
Activates Lipoprotein Lipase
Apo-CII
Ligand for HDL Receptor
Apo-A1
Ligand for LDL Receptor
Apo-B100
Ligand for LDL receptor and remnant factor
Apo-E
stabilized by hydrophobic frces not covalent bonds
apolipoprotein complexes
Lipoprotein Lipase
Located @ Capillary Walls of Tissues
Activated by Apo C-II
Hydrolyzes TG to make monoacylglycerol,glycerol, FA's
Deficiency in Lipoprotein Lipase + C-II
Accumulation of TG-rich lipoproteins in plasma

type-1 hyperlipidemia
Chylomicron Remnants
Loss of TG
decrease in size
increase in density
apo c-ii returned to HDL
taken up by endocytes
degraded to aa's, free cholesterol, glycerol, fa
Enzyme for exchange between VLDL & HDL
Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP)
Abetalipoproteinemia
ApoB not made
no Chylomicrons/VLDL in serum
Lipid droplets accumulate in liver/intestinal cells
Hypolipidemia
HDL
1. Reservoir for apolipoproteins
2. Synthesized in liver & released in blood stream (exocytosis)
Enzyme for esterifying Cholesterol in HDL
Phosphotidylcholine Cholesterol Acyl Transferase (LCAT/PCAT)
Enzyme activated by Epinephrine, NE, Glucagon for metabolism of TG in tissues
Hormone Sensitive Lipase

AKA Triacyl Glycerol Lipase
Carries FFA in blood stream
Serum Albumin
Lacks Glycerol Kinase to metabolize free glycerol
Adipocytes
Catalyzes FA 'activation'
Acyl CoA Synthetase
Main Regulator of FA Oxidation & Inhibits CPT-1
Malonyl CoA
enzyme on the outer membrane of mitochondria
Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1)
enzyme on the inner membrane of mitochondria
Carnitine Palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT-2)
4 Steps of Beta Oxidation
1. Oxidation
2. Hydration
3. Oxidation
4. Thiolisis (cleavage)
Where does Acetyl CoA go after it is made in beta oxidation
Citric Acid Cycle (10 ATP)
Energy made per cycle of beta oxidation
1 NADH
1 FADH2
1 Acetyl CoA
Enzyme for oxidation of monounsaturated fat
Enoyl CoA Isomerase
2 enzymes for polyunsaturated fat oxidation
1.Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase
2.2-4 DiEnoyl CoA Reductase
Zellwegger Syndrome
Accumulation of VLCFA
Peroxisomes not properly formed
Death 1st year
Adrenoleukodystrophy
Innability to transport VLCFA into peroxisomesVLCFA accumulates in brain
demylination of brain/degeneration of adrenal cortex
Psychomotor retardation/seizures
Occurs in the peroxisomes of mainly Brain and other nervous tissues
Alpha Oxidation
C10-C14 Fatty Acids released in tissue in ketosis, no energy made
Omega oxidation
3 Compounds formed during Ketone body synthesis
1. 3-hydroxybutyrate
2. Acetoacetate
3. Acetone
rate limiting step for ketone body synthesis
HMG CoA Synthase
Enzyme for conversion of OAA to PEP
PEP carboxykinase
(present in liver, absent in muscle and heart)
How does Acetyl CoA get out of mitochondria
Citrate acts as a carrier
Main pathway for de novo synthesis of FA
Cytosol
Commited step in FA Synthesis
Malonyl CoA formation
enzyme for carboxylation of Acetyl CoA to make Malonyl CoA
Acetyl CoA Carboxylase
Acetyl Coa Contains...
Biotin
Hormone that activates FA Synthesis
Insulin
Hormone that inhibits FA Synthesis
Glucagon
2 Steps for Acetyl CoA Carboxylation
1. Formation of carboxybiotin (needs ATP)

2. Activated CO2 group is transferred to acetyl CoA to make malonyl CoA
Main purpose of Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP)
Used for activation
4 steps in FA Synthesis
1. Condensation
2. Reduction
3. Dehydration
4. Reduction
End product of FA Synthesis
palmitate