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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the purpose of PPP? X 3.
1.) Produce NADPH for pathways
2.) Produce NADPH for glutathione (GSH) regeneration
3.) Produce pentoses for nucleic acid synthesis
What does glucose become in the PPP and what enzyme is used?
Glucose 6 Phosphate with the help of hexokinase/glucokinase.
When are NADPH's made?
1.) When converting G6P to 6-Phosphogluconolactone.
2.) When converting 6-Phosphogluconate to Ribulose 5 Phosphate
NADPH is a competitive inhibitor of what?
Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase
When is CO2 made?
When converting from 6-Phosphogluconate to Ribulose 5 Phosphate
1.) G6PDH
2.) 6 Phosphogluconate DH
3.) Isomerase
4.) Epimerase
5.) Transketolase
6.) Transaldolase
7.) Transketolase
Structure of glutathione
1.) Glycine
2.) Cysteine
3.) Glutamate
In erythrocytes, NADPH is generated only by?
How does glutathione peroxidase help with detox?
Glutathione peroxidase will react with reduced glutathione (GSH) to convert hydrogen peroxide to water.
How is NADPH involved in the detox reaction?
NADPH will reduce the oxidized GS-SG into reduced GSH for the reaction to occur again.
G6PDH has as a side effect, a resistance to what disease?
Malaria (P. Falciparum)
What is the purpose of microsomal cyt P-450?
To hydroxylate non-polar drugs or xenobiotics to better excrete them.
How does NADPH help microsomal cyt P-450 monooxygenase?
NADPH will reduce cyt P-450 reductase which will activate it to reduce cyt P-450 which will activate it to hydroxylate non polar drugs.
Locations of carbohydrate metabolism.
1.) Salivary alpha amylase in mouth.
2.) Pancreatic alpha amylase in small intestine.
3.) Final digestion occurs in jejunem where mucosal cell membrane-bound enzymes work.
What stops salivary amylase from continuing to break down carbohydrates?
The strong acidity of the stomach.
What is lactate deficiency?
The inability to cleave a disaccharide such as lactose.
What is the result with lactate deficiency?
Lactate will be used by the intestinal bacteria creating CO2, 2 carbon metabolite, 3 carbon metabolite, and H2.
What are the symptoms of lactate deficiency?
Bloating, diarrhea, and dehydration.
What does NAD+ accept, from what, and what does it use it for?
Accepts electron pair from oxidized intermediates for ENERGY PRODUCTION (catabolism)
What does NADP+ accept, from what, and what does it use it for?
Accepts electron pair from oxidized intermediates for BIOSYNTHESIS (anabolism)
What does transketolase require?
Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)
When you lack transketolase activity, what diseases manifest? X 2
Beri - Beri (thiamine deficiency)

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome