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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the lymphatic system composed of?
3 things
Primary/secondary lymphoid TISSUES

lymph NODES

lymphatic VESSELS parallel circ system
what is lymph?

how does it circulate?
yellow fluid derived from tissue fluid.

via lymph vessels, through nodes to recieve macrophages/lymphocytes/Iglblns

- the trash flow
What are the primary lymphoid organs?
(2 adult we normally think of, 1 fetal)
bone marrow and thymus

fetal = liver
what are the secondary lymph organs?
nodes, spleen, MALT.
What differentiates lymphocytes?
CD markers - cluster designation
3 types of lymph cells
what percent of lymphs are B cells?
how long do they live?
what is their function?
15% to 35%;

short lived;

function to produce antibody
what is an end-stage B cell?
a PLASMA CELL with capability of remembering antigens and making antibody later.
what percent of circ lymphs are T cells?

whats their function?

what are the 2 subsets

regulators and effectors of immunity

what is it called when red cells form around a lymph?
Spontaneous sheep erythrocyte rosetting
what are the 2 ways NK cells kill?
1. ADCC - antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

2. Instructional model - cells w/out CD4 lack the inhibitory signal, so NK cells are directed to kill them.
What is lymphocytosis?
When is lymphocytosis seen? (7 diseases)
Viral infection
Bordatella pertussis
EBV - mono
Toxoplasma gondii
7 diseases lymphocytopenia is seen:
-Aplastic anemia
Radiation therapy
Glucocorticoid release
Platelet apheresis
Based on granules, how do you know a lymph is not a monocyte?
If you can count the granules, it's not a monocyte.
contrast chromatin in large lymphs and reactive:
large = fine, homogenous
reactive: clumps, diffused throughout the nucleus instead of clumped at periphery.
In what cells do you see a perinuclear halo? What is it?
Plasma cells - endstage B cells.

The Golgi apparatus for making antibody
what is the cyanmethemoglobin reaction?
1. Ferricyanide oxidizes Hgb to Methemoglobin in alkaline med.
2. Methgb +Cyanide = Cynmethgb
Cyanmethgb absorbs at 540 nm
what are 4 potential sources of a falsely elevated Hgb?
-Gross lipemia
-Sickle-resistant red cells
How do you correct a lipemic hgb measurement that is falsely elevated?
-Spin blood; dilute plasma in 5 ml cyanmethgb.
Amount to use = (1-Hct)x20uL
Measure OD and subtract from original Hgb msmnt.
How do you correct a leukemic Hgb msmnt?
Do a normal hgb; then spin the cyanmethgb and read OD of supernat = correct HgB conc.
When would you dilute a spcimen for Hgb in half with water?
incomplete lysis due to:
-Sickle cell anemia
For hgb msmnts greater than 18g/dl, what should be done?
Dilute the sample further,then multiply the result by the dilution factor.
What are 4 potential sources of hematocrit error?
-Poorly mixed blood
-Partially clotted blood
-Inadequetely sealed tube
-Inadequete speed/force/duration of spin
Why would a Hct be falsely decreased?
If the sample was spun too hard.
What is the principle of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate?
Big, formed elements settle faster because they are more dense. These are increasd in infection, and cause RBCs to form rouleaux and settle faster.
Why do you do an ESR?
to evaluate the extent of infection, inflammation, hyperviscous syndrome, and degenerative states.
What is carboxyhemoglobin?

What is the result of each?
Carboxy = hgb + CO; no O2 transfer.
Meth = ferric iron; doesn't carry O2 well.
Sulf = hgb + sulfur
What color results from
Carboxy = bright cherry red
Meth = brown
Sulf = lavender.
what are the limitations on specimen usage in the ESR?
must use blood 2 hrs after draw
or refrig up to 12 hrs
-must be room temp
how long does the ESR go?
1 hr; can be read +/- five min
What are 6 uses for a particle manual count?
-spinal fluid
-synovial fluid
-pleural fluid
-peritoneal fluid
-total eosin
-problem platelets
what is used to dilute RBCs for a manual particle count?
Hayam's gower normal saline
what is used to dilute WBC for a manual particle count?
Acetic acid
Turk's HCL
what do the diluents for WBC do?
lyse RBCs.
what are the precision limitations of the particle count?
chambers must agree w/in 10%
squares must agree w/in 8 cells
Count must be within 1000cells/ul of the predetermined count.
An overly blue peripheral smear indicates what?
Overly red?
Blue = too much alkaline buffer.
Red = too acidic of buffer.
What does methylene blue stian?
what does eosin stain?
methylene blue stains acidic components; nucleic acid, basophilic granules.
eosin stains basic components; major basic protein, azurophilic granules.
what 4 reasons would make you repeat a diff?
-noting abnormal cells
-nRBCs present
-immature cells
which cell in RBC maturation is the first production of Hgb seen in?
the first one; rubriblast.
which cell is the last one capable of division?
third - rubricyte/polychromatophilic normoblast
which cell is the last one w/ a nucleus?

what is the cell often called?
metarubricyte/orthochromic normoblast;

aka, nRBC.
what cell is a retic? what charactizes it?
diffusely basophilic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte; no nucleus, so just dots of RNA that condense with new methylene blue
what is the function of a retic?
-to mature in the bmarrow.
-to synthesize 45% of Hgb
What is the chemical makeup of a retic?
-Protein machinery
-No nucleus
What does an RPI of greater than three in an anemic individual indicate?
hemolytic anemia
what does an RPI of greater than 2 but less than 3 in an anemic individual indicate?
the bone marrow is responding to treatment