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214 Cards in this Set

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DEXAMETHASONE Class
Steroid
DEXAMETHASONE Mechanism of Action
prevents accumulation of inflammatory cells at sites of infection or injury.
DEXAMETHASONE Indications
cerebral edema, anaphylaxis, asthma and COPD
DEXAMETHASONE Contraindications
None in the emergency setting.
DEXAMETHASONE Side Effects
Moon face swelling, water retension.
DEXAMETHASONE Dosage
4 - 20mg IV
DEXAMETHASONE Special Considerations
Avoid SC injection; atrophy and sterile abscesses may occur.
DEXAMETHASONE Trade Name
Decadron
DIAZEPAM Trade Name
Valium
DIAZEPAM Class
Anti-convulsant
DIAZEPAM Mechanism of Action
Intensifies activity of gamma-aminobenzoic acid (GABA), by interfering with its reuptake and promoting its accumulation at neuronal synapses
DIAZEPAM Indications
Seizure activity
DIAZEPAM Contraindications
CNS depression
DIAZEPAM Side Effects
Respiratory depression
DIAZEPAM Dosage
5 - 10mg IV slow
10 - 20mg IM
DIAZEPAM Special Considerations
Due to short half-life, seizue activity may recur.
KETOROLAC Class
NSAID
KETOROLAC Trade Name
Toradol
KETOROLAC Mechanism of Action
Inhibits protaglandin synthesis decreasing swelling and pain
KETOROLAC Indications
Mild to moderate
KETOROLAC Contraindications
Avtive G.I. Bleeding
KETOROLAC Side Effects
G.I. irratability
KETOROLAC Dosage
30mg IV, 60mg IM
KETOROLAC Special Considerations
Monitor for signs and symptoms of bleeding. Ketorolac decreases platelet aggregation and thus may prolong bleeding
time
MIDAZOLAM Class
Anti-convulsant
MIDAZOLAM Trade Name
Versed
MIDAZOLAM Mechanism of Action
Intensifies activity of gamma-aminobenzoic acid (GABA), by interfering with its reuptake and promoting its accumulation at neuronal synapses
MIDAZOLAM Indications
Rapid sequence induction (RSI), sedation, cardio conversion
MIDAZOLAM Contraindications
CNS depression
MIDAZOLAM Side Effects
Respiratory depression
MIDAZOLAM Dosage
.02mg/kg up to 5mg max dosage
MIDAZOLAM Special Considerations
During IV infusion, inspect injection site for redness, pain,swelling, and other signs of extravasation.
MEPERIDINE Trade Name
Demerol
MEPERIDINE Class
Narcotic Analgesic
MEPERIDINE Mechanism of Action
Stimulates opioid receptor sites, decreasing sensitivity to pain
MEPERIDINE Indications
Moderate to severe pain
MEPERIDINE Contraindications
Abdominal pain, head injury
MEPERIDINE Side Effects
Respiratory depression
MEPERIDINE Dosage
50mg IV, 100mg IM
MEPERIDINE Special Considerations
Pregnancy Category B
MORPHINE Trade Name
MS Contin
MORPHINE Class
Narcotic Analgesic
MORPHINE Mechanism of Action
Stimulates opioid receptor sites, decreasing sensitivity to pain
MORPHINE Indications
Severe pain, MI
MORPHINE Contraindications
Abdominal pain, head injury
MORPHINE Side Effects
Respiratory depression
MORPHINE Dosage
2mg/min up to 10mg max dosage
MORPHINE Special considerations
Pregnancy Category B
NITROUS OXIDE Trade Name
Nitronox
NITROUS OXIDE Class
Analgesic gas
NITROUS OXIDE Mechanism of Action
Decreases sensation of pain
NITROUS OXIDE Indications
Mild pain, acute anxiety
NITROUS OXIDE Contraindications
Intoxication, COPD, altered LOC
NITROUS OXIDE Side Effects
Hypotension
NITROUS OXIDE Dosage
PRN
NITROUS OXIDE Special considerations
Only use nitrous oxide in areas
that are well ventilated.
PANCURONIUM Trade Name
Pavulon
PANCURONIUM Class
Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker
PANCURONIUM Mechanism of Action
Blocks ACH receptor sites at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis
PANCURONIUM Indications
To facilitate endotracheal intubation
PANCURONIUM Contraindications
Inability to control airway
PANCURONIUM Side Effects
Transient hypotension
PANCURONIUM Dosage
0.1mg/kg IV slow
PANCURONIUM Special Considerations
Pregnancy Category C
VECURONIUM Trade Name
Norcuron
VECURONIUM Class
Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker
VECURONIUM Mechanism of Action
Blocks ACH receptor sites at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis
VECURONIUM Indications
To facilitate endotracheal intubation
VECURONIUM Contraindications
Inability to control airway
VECURONIUM Side Effects
Transient hypotension
VECURONIUM Dosage
0.1mg/kg IV slow
VECURONIUM Special Considerations
Pregnancy Category C
SUCCINYLCHOLINE Trade Name
Anectine
SUCCINYLCHOLINE Class
Depolarizing neuromuscular blocker
SUCCINYLCHOLINE Mechanism of Action
Mimics ACH at the neuromuscular junction causing constant muscle contractions
SUCCINYLCHOLINE Indications
To facilitate endotracheal intubation.
SUCCINYLCHOLINE Contraindications
Inability to control airway
SUCCINYLCHOLINE Side Effects
Hypotension, respiratory depression
SUCCINYLCHOLINE Dosage
1 - 2 mg/kg
SUCCINYLCHOLINE Special Considerations
Rapid action, short term. Premedication with lidocaine will prevent dysrhythmias
MANNITOL Trade Name
Osmitrol
MANNITOL Class
Osmotic diuretic
MANNITOL Mechanism of Action
Increases intravascular volume through osmosis due to its high molecular weight
MANNITOL Indications
Cerebral edema
MANNITOL Contraindications
Chronic renal failure, cerebral hemorrhage
MANNITOL Side Effects
excessive urination
MANNITOL Dosage
1g/kg
MANNITOL Special Considerations
Very thick, use 14 gauge needles. Pregnancy category C
ADENOSINE Trade Name
Adenocard
ADENOSINE Class
Antidysrhythmic
ADENOSINE Mechanism of Action
Slows SVT by decreasing electrical conduction through the AV node without causing negative inotropic effects
ADENOSINE Indications
Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW)
ADENOSINE Contraindications
A-Fib, 2nd or 3rd degree AV block
ADENOSINE Side Effects
Transient Asystole, transient chest pain
ADENOSINE Special considerations
Very short half-life of about 10 seconds.
AMIODARONE Trade Name
Cordarone
AMIODARONE Class
Antidysrhythmic
AMIODARONE Mechanism of Action
decreases excitability and sensitivity of the heart, causing negative dromotropism.
AMIODARONE Indications
All dysrhythmias
AMIODARONE Contraindications
Heart block
AMIODARONE Side Effects
Hypotension
AMIODARONE Special Considerations
Do not shake medication before using
ASPIRIN Trade Name
St Joseph Children’s
ASPIRIN Class
Analgesic, Anti-platelet
ASPIRIN Mechanism of Action
Inhibits prostoglandin systhesis and platelet aggregation
ASPIRIN Indications
chest pain
ASPIRIN Contraindications
G.I. Bleed
ASPIRIN Side effects
upset stomach
ASPIRIN Special Considerations
Gastric irritation may be minimized by administering with
a full glass of water (240 mL), or with milk, food, or
antacid
ATROPINE Trade Name
Atropine
ATROPINE Class
Parasympatholytic
ATROPINE Mechanism of Action
selectively blocks all muscarinic responses to
acetylcholine (ACh) causing a decrease in Parasympathetic response (SLUDGE)
ATROPINE Indications
Bradycardia, organophosphate poisoning
ATROPINE Contraindications
None in emergency situations
ATROPINE Side Effects
Tachycardia
ATROPINE Special Considerations
Atropine is indicated only after
oxygen and epinephrine fail.
BRETYLIUM Trade Name
Bretylol
BRETYLIUM Class
Antidysrhythmic
BRETYLIUM Mechanism of Action
Causes a release of norepinephrine, depresses v-fib and v-tach by blocking adrenergic receptor sites
BRETYLIUM Indications
v-fib, v-tach
BRETYLIUM Contraindications
none in life threatening dysrhythmias
BRETYLIUM Side Effects
transite hypertension
BRETYLIUM Special Considerations
Bretylium has been removed from ACLS algorithms
DILTIAZEM Trade name
Cardizem
DILTIAZEM Class
Calcium channel blocker
DILTIAZEM Mechanism of Action
Inhibits calcium ION influx during depolarization causing negative dromotropism
DILTIAZEM Indications
SVT, A-fib, unstable angina
DILTIAZEM Contraindications
2nd or 3rd degree heart block, BP < 90 systolic
DILTIAZEM Side Effects
Hypotension, bradycardia
DILTIAZEM Special Considerations
Calcium chloride can be used in overdose situations.
DOPAMINE Trade Name
Intropin
DOPAMINE Class
Sympathomimetic
DOPAMINE Mechanism of Action
Acts on dopaminergic receptors causing renal, mesenteric and cerebral vasodialation.
DOPAMINE Indications
Cardiogenic shock
DOPAMINE Contraindications
Hypovolemic shock
DOPAMINE Side Effects
Hypertension
DOPAMINE Special Considerations
Pregnancy catagory C
EPINEPHRINE Trade Name
Adrenaline
EPINEPHRINE Class
Sympathomimetic
EPINEPHRINE Mechanism of Action
Acts directly on both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors, imitating actions of the sympathetic nervous system
EPINEPHRINE Indications
Anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest
EPINEPHRINE Contraindications
cardiogenic shock
EPINEPHRINE Side Effects
Transient dysrhythmias
EPINEPHRINE Special Considerations
Pregnancy Category C
FUROSEMIDE Trade Name
Lasix
FUROSEMIDE Class
Loop diuretic
FUROSEMIDE Mechanism of Action
Inhibits reabsorbtion of sodium chloride in the proximal tubule and loop of henle
FUROSEMIDE Indication
Pulmonary edema, CHF
FUROSEMIDE Contraindications
Chronic renal failure, hypovolemia
FUROSEMIDE Side effects
Dehydration, hypotension
FUROSEMIDE Special Considerations
Pregnancy Category C
ISOPROTERENOL Trade Name
Isuprel
ISOPROTERENOL Class
Sympathomimetic
ISOPROTERENOL Mechanism of Action
stimulation of beta1 and beta2 adrenergic receptors, causing positive inotropic and chronotropic effects
ISOPROTERENOL Indications
Bradycardia
ISOPROTERENOL Contraindications
Cardiogenic shock
ISOPROTERENOL Side Effects
Tachycardia
ISOPROTERENOL Special Considerations
Can potentially cause
cardiac toxicity
LABETALOL Trade Name
Trandate
LABETALOL Class
Beta Blocker
LABETALOL Mechanism of Action
Adrenergic-receptor blocking agent that combines selective alpha activity and nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking actions
LABETALOL Indications
Acute hypertensive crisis
LABETALOL Contraindications
Asthma
LABETALOL Side Effects
Hypotension
LABETALOL Special Considerations
Do not use with IV calcium channel blockers.
LIDOCAINE Trade Name
Xylocaine
LIDOCAINE Class
Antidysrhythmic
LIDOCAINE Mechanism of Action
Negative dromotropism, decreases sensitivy
LIDOCAINE Indications
V-tach, V-fib, PVCs
LIDOCAINE Contraindications
Bradycardia, heart block
LIDOCAINE Side Effects
Hypotension, toxicity
LIDOCAINE Special Considerations
Also used as a local anesthetic
NITROGLYCERIN Trade Name
Nitrostat
NITROGLYCERIN Class
Nitrate
NITROGLYCERIN Mechanism of Action
Decreases load on heart through arterial vasodilation,
NITROGLYCERIN Indications
Angina, MI
NITROGLYCERIN Contraindications
BP<90, recent viagra use
NITROGLYCERIN Side Effects
Hypotension, tachycardia
NITROGLYCERIN Special Considerations
Do not expose to light, do not handle without gloves
NOREPINEPHRINE Trade Name
Levophed
NOREPINEPHRINE Class
Sympathomimetic
NOREPINEPHRINE Mechanism of Action
A potent vasoconstrictor, alpha1 and beta1 agonist.
NOREPINEPHRINE Indications
Cardiogenic shock, neurogenic shock
NOREPINEPHRINE Contraindications
Hypotension, hypovolemia
NOREPINEPHRINE Side Effects
Hypertension
NOREPINEPHRINE Special Considerations
Avoid extravasation as tissue necrosis may occur, last line drug to maintain perfusion
PROCAINAMIDE Trade Name
Pronestyl
PROCAINAMIDE Class
Antidysrhythmic
PROCAINAMIDE Mechanism of Action
Causes negative dromotrope by depressing the excitability of the myocardium to electrical stimulation
PROCAINAMIDE Indications
ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia
PROCAINAMIDE Contraindications
Heart block
PROCAINAMIDE Side Effects
Hypotension
PROCAINAMIDE Special Considerations
Discontinue when QRS complex widened (greater than 50%)or BP drops 15 mm Hg or more.
PROPRANOLOL Trade Name
Inderal
PROPRANOLOL Class
Beta blocker
PROPRANOLOL Mechanism of Action
blocks cardiac
effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation; as a result, reduces heart rate, myocardial irritability and force of contraction
PROPRANOLOL Indications
Ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia
PROPRANOLOL Contraindications
Heart Block
PROPRANOLOL Side Effects
bradycardia, Visual disturbances, impotence
PROPRANOLOL Special Considerations
Use glucogon as treatment for overdose
VASOPRESSIN Trade Name
Pitressin
VASOPRESSIN Class
Hormone
VASOPRESSIN Mechanism of Action
Vasopressin produces concentrated urine by increasing tubular reabsorption of
water (ADH activity)
VASOPRESSIN Indications
To increase peripheral vascular resistance during CPR
VASOPRESSIN Contraindications
chronic nephritis accompanied by
nitrogen retention
VASOPRESSIN Side Effects
hypertension, bradycardia
VASOPRESSIN Special Considerations
It may be useful in septic shock
VERAPAMIL Trade Name
Calan
VERAPAMIL Class
Calcium channel blocker
VERAPAMIL Mechanism of Action
Inhibits calcium ION influx during depolarization causing negative dromotropism
VERAPAMIL Indications
SVT, A-fib, unstable angina
VERAPAMIL Contraindications
2nd or 3rd degree heart block, BP < 90 systolic
VERAPAMIL Side Effects
Hypotension, bradycardia
VERAPAMIL Special Considerations
Transient asymptomatic hypotension may accompany IV
bolus