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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Attacking opponent's character rather than arguments; name-calling; poisoning the well.
Ad Hominem Attacks
Relying on popularity rather than reasoning; appeal to common practice.
Bandwagon Appeal
Circular reasoning in which a claim is restated, usually in different words, as support for itself; "I think, therefore I am."
Begging the Question
Linguistic slight-of-hand whereby the key term in an argument is employed in an ambiguous manner that reflects two or more different things.
Basing an appeal on an authority figure who lacks competence in the field under consideration.
False Authority
Maintaining that an issue permits only two options, a favorable one and a worst-case representative of the opposing side.
False Dichotomy
Making a broad claim on the basis of narrow evidence, sometimes on the basis of only one or two examples.
Hasty Generalization
Using reasoning or evidence that is exceptionally irrelevant to the claim being made.
Non Sequitur
Reducing or ignoring complex causal relationships in favor of a simple claim that fails to address significant dimensions of the issue.
Confusing chronology with causation, asserting that because one event happened AFTER another, it must have been CAUSED BY the earlier event.
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
Introducing an irrelevant but sensational issue in order to divert the argument from its proper focus.
Red Herring
Implying that a small step in a certain direction will inevitably lead one down a slippery slope toward ruin/disaster.
Slippery Slope
Using powerful symbols to appeal to emotions instead of reason; flag waving.
Stirring Symbols
Invalid form of counter-argument; setting up an exaggerated, simplified, or falsified version of the opposing position and "refuting" it with claims that ignore the opponent's actual reasoning.
Straw-Person Arguments