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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Non sequitur
-"it does not follow"
-stating a conclusion that doesn't follow from the first premise or premises.
ex: I've lived in this town a long time-why, my grandfather was the first mayor-so I'm against putting fluoride in the drinking water."
Over simplification
-supplying neat and easy explanations for large and complicated phnomena.
ex: "No wonder drug abuseis out of control. Look at how the courts have hobbled police officers"
-__ed solutionsare also popular
ex: "All these teenage kids that get in trouble with the law-why, they ought to ship 'em over to China. That would straighten 'em out!"
Hasty Generalization
leaping to a generalization from inadequate or faulty evidence. The most familiar __ is the stereotype.
ex: "Men aren't sensitive enough to be day-care providers:
"Women are too emotional to fight in combat."
Either/or reasoning
-assuming that a reality may be divided into only two parts or extremes; assuming that a given problem has only one of two posible solutions
ex: "What's to be done about the trade imbalance with Asia? Either we ban all Asian imports, or American industry will collapse."
-obviously, this reasoning is a kind of extreme oversimplification.
Argument from doubtful or unidentified authority
ex: "We ought to castrate all sex offendersl Uncle Oswald says we should."
"According to reliable sources, my opponent is lying."
Argument ad hominem
-To the man
-attacking a person's views by attacking his or her character.
ex: "Mayor Burns is divorced and strange from his family. How can we listen to his pleas for a city nursing home?"
Begging the question
-takin for granted from the start what you set out to demonstrate. When you reaon in a logical way, you state that because something's true, then, as a result, some other truth follows. When you __ you repeat that what is true is true (repetition).
ex: If you argue that dogs are a menance to people because they're mean, doesn't prove a thing, since the idea that dogs are dangerous is already assumed in the statement that they are a menace.
"I am in college because that is the right thing to do. Going to college is the right thing to do because it is expected of me."
(Post hoc, ergo propter hoc) post hoc
-(after this, therefore because of this)assuming that because B follows A, B was caused by A.
ex: "Ever since the city suspended height restrictions on skyscrapers, the city budget has been balanced."
False Analogy
-the claim of persuasive likeness when no significant likeness exists. Analogies cannot serve as evidence in a rational argumentbecause they differences outweigh the similarities; but analogies can reinforce such arguments if the subjects are similar in some ways. If not, it's false.