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38 Cards in this Set

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Non Causa Pro Causa
Mistaking a false cause of an event for the real cause
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
confusing "after" with "because"-assuming that because x happens AFTER y, y caused x
Unrelated Testimonials
authorities in one field are used to endorse products in an other field
Questionable Authority
"studies show..."; "experts claim..."
Non-Sequitur
Conclusion does not follow the evidence
Begging the Question (or circular reasoning)
Beginning with a premise that is acceptable only to anyone who will agree witht he conclusion that is subsequently reached
False Premise
Beginning with false assumption that the audience is made to believe is true
False Generalization
Using "all," "everyone," "always," "never," etc.-offering a generalization based on incomplete for nonexistent evidence
Fishing for Data (Post-Designation)
Draws a conclusion from correlations observed in a sample, but only after the sample has already been drawn
Hasty Generalization
Draws a conclusion from a sample that is too small, i.e. is made up of too few cases
False analogy
Using an analogy to make a comparison and then reasoning from comparison as if it were a fact; makes error or assuming because 2 things are alike in one way, they are alike in all ways
Reasoning Backward
Assumes that because members of a particular group have a characteristic in common, anyone with that characteristic must belong to the group
Ambiguous Reference
Reference with multiple/unclear meanings ("I shot a panda in my pyjamas")
Appeal to Ignorance
Argument mistakes lack of evidence for evidence to the contrary ("No one knows it is true. Therefore it is false.")
Appeal to Tradition
Supports a position by appealing to long-standing or traditional opinion, as it the past itself were an authority
Black and White Thinking *(or False Dilemma)
Leaps from falsity of one position to the truth of its contrary w/o middle ground
Dicto Simpliciter
Draws conclusion from over-simplistic statement of a rule
Destroying exception by insisting on the rule; or
Destroying rule by insisting on exception
Complex Question
Rhetorical question that, when answered, is admitting something that should not be admitted
Tu Quoque
Supports position by showing that its shortcomings are shard by an opposing position ("Mine's bad, but your's is just as bad.")
Straw Man
Misrepresents position that it seeks to refute
Phantom Distinction
Appeals to a distinction that ultimately cannot be explained or defended in a meaningful way
Speculative Evidence
Draws conclusion from an assertion about what the evidence WOULD show if someone were to look at it
Inductive Hyperbole
Draws a conclusion that is stated more strongly than the evidence actually supports
Distributive Fallacy
Turns on a confusion of the collective sense of a class with the distributive sense of a class
Composition-moves from parts to whole; or
Division-moves from whole to parts
Anecdotal Evidence
Draws evidence from cases specifically chosen to support the conclusion
Hypothesis Contrary to Fact
From a statement of fact, argument draws a counterfactual claim
Vacuous Explanation
Proposes an explanation w/o clear meaning ("whatever explains the phenomenon...")
Ad Hominem-Abusive
Attacks a position by appealing to despicable qualities and over-all lowness of people who hole position
Ad Hominem-Circumstantial
Attacks position by appealing to vested interests of people who hold the position
Hitting Below the Belt
Attacking opposition's life, family, appearence, etc.
Damning with Faint Praise
"attacks" a position by complimenting or praising opponent unenthusiastically
Jingoism/Appeal to Patriotism
Attempts to persuade by calling one's community spirit
Appeal to Force
Explicit or veiled threat
Appeal to Hope/Wishful Thinking
Attempts to persuade by invoking hopes and desires
Appeal to Pity
Attempts to persuade by provoking feelings of sympathy
Bandwagon
Suggests something is true because everone else believes it is
Slippery Slope
Says taking one action will inevitably lead to an undesireable conclusion
Naturalistic Fallacy
Arguing something because it is or isn't "natural"