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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
whole to parts (attributes)
parts to whole (attribute)
Conclusion depends on wrong interpretation of synactically ambiguous statement
conclusion depends on a shift in meaning, or word, or phrase.
Suppressed Evidence
ignoring important evidence that requires different conclusion
False Dichotomy
‘Either...or....’ statement hides more alternatives
Complex Question
Multiple questions are concealed in a single question
Begging the Question
circular reasoning, restate conclusion as premise, leave out key premise
Weak Analogy
Conclusion depends on defective analogy
Slippery Slope
unlikely chain reaction
False Cause
Conclusion depends on non-existent or minor causal connection
Hasty Generalization
Conclusion drawn from atypical example
Appeal to Ignorance
nothing is known or proved, and conclusion is drawn due to this
Appeal to Unqualified Authority
citing an untrustworthy authority
Red Herring
arguer leads reader/listener off track
Missing the Point
arguer draws different conclusion than what the premises support
Straw Man
distort argument and attack distorted argument
general rule applied to specific case wasn't intended to cover
Argument against Person (tu quoque)
Argument against Person (circumstantial)
present other arguer as predisposed to argue a certain way
Argument against Person (abusive)
verbally abuse other arguer
Appeal to People (indirect)
appeal to reader/listener's desire for security, love, respect, etc.
Appeal to People (direct)
arouse mob mentality
Appeal to Pity
elicit pity from reader/listener
Appeal to Force
threaten reader/listener