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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Morphological typology
Classification of languages according to common morphological structures.
Morphological strategies used in English
- inflectional affixation (cats, freezing, biggest)
- vowel mutation (foot/feet, run/ran)
- suppletion (go/went, good/better)
- in general, English relies on word order to express case relationships
Synthetic language
A language in which syntactic relations are expressed by inflectional morphemes rather than by word order. Words are formed by affixing morphemes to a root morpheme.
Analytic language
A language in which syntactic relations are expressed primarily by word order rather than by inflectional morphemes attached to words. Analytic languages have very few derivational or infectional affixes. They often form words by combining free morphemes into compound words.
Agglutinative languages
A type of synthetic language which can have several morphemes that attach to a root morpheme. Each morpheme has only one meaning that is clearly distinct. E.g. Turkish, Swahili, Salish
Polysynthetic languages
Languages with a high number of morphemes per word (highly agglutinative languages)
Fusional languages
Languages in which morphemes have more than one meaning fused into a single affix - morphemes attached to the root may fuse more than one meaning into a single affix. E.g. Spanish, German, Russian, Hebrew
Slang
An informal word or expression that has not gained complete acceptability and is used by a particular group. Generally (not always) existing words are repurposed; have a fairly short life
Jargon
Specialized vocabulary associated with a trade or profession, sport, game, etc.
Dialect
Variety of a language that has unique phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax and vocabulary.
Register
Manner of speaking that depends on audience (e.g. formal vs informal)
Taboo word
Forbidden word or expression interpreted as insulting, vulgar, or rude in a particular language.
Verb + Particle
A way of forming a new word. E.g. handout, takeout, pickup, takeover, shoo-in.
Coining (neologism)
Recently created word; typically refers to a word not derived from existing words. E.g. "bling".
Compounding
Combining one or more words into a single word. Can be of any open-class variety (nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs). Compound prepositions also exist, and prepositions can form part of the compounds of other categories (e.g. outsource). No consistent spelling; compounds can occur with hyphens, as separate words, or spelled out as a single word. Can be recognized by stress pattern; typically compound stress falls on the first word (allows distinction from phrases) e.g. stress in black bird vs blackbird.
Eponym
Word that comes from the name of a person associated with it. E.g. Braille, Achilles heel, Orwellian
Blend (portmanteau)
Word made from putting parts of two words together. E.g. permafrost, blog, brunch
Conversion
Change of a word's syntactic category without changing form, such as a noun becoming a verb. E.g. trash/to trash. Some conversions induce a change in stress (e.g. permit, convert)
Acronym
Word formed from abbreviations of other words (e.g. SARS, NASA, WASP, radar, scuba)
Initialism
Word formed from the initial letters of a group of words, pronounced with their letter names. E.g. DVD, OMG, LOL
Orthographic initialisms/abbreviations
The written word is a shortening of some other word, but we pronounce the whole word rather than the abbreviation (Jr., Dr., Mr.)
Clipping
Making a word by omitting syllables in an existing word (e.g. pants from pantaloons, strep from streptococcus)
Backformation
Making a new word by omitting what appears to be a morpheme (usually a suffix or prefix) but actually isn't. E.g. edit is backformed from editor, scavenge is backformed from scavenger. Nearly impossible to tell without knowing the history of the word.
Reduplication
Making a word by doubling an entire free morpheme (total reduplication) or part of it. E.g. hocus-pocus, hoity-toity, tutti-frutti, mama.