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131 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Factors of language processing that enhance recall
Recency, Frequency, and Context
Prescriptive Grammar
Rules of incorrect/correct grammar (don't split infitive, etc)
Descriptive Grammar
Describing the instances of language people use and how
Area of the brain involved in comprehension and selection of words
Wernicke's Area
Area of the brain responsible for organizing articulatory patterns of langauge and directing the motor cortex
Broca's Area
Linguistic Utterances
Linguisitc Performance
Mental Grammar
Linguisitc Competence
Study of biological and neural foundations of language in the brain
Neurolinguistics
The way the mind aquires, stores, processes, uses language, etc is called
Psycholinguistics
The ability to communicate about things not present in time and space
Displacement
The ability of an individual to both send and receive messages
Interchangability
Some aspect of communication system that is learned through interaction with others
Cultural Transmission
That signals have meaning
Semanticity
Complex signals are built up out of smaller parts
Discreteness
The ability to produce and understand any number of messages
Productivity
The form of the signal is not logically connected to the meaning
Arbitrariness
Features of communication systems only belonging to true languages
Displacement and Productivity
The primacy of speech over written language
Speech was present long before writing, learning to speak is not a conscious decision, etc
"Meow" "Bang" "Whoosh"
Onomatopoeic Words
"GLare" "GLow" "GLitter" where [GL] = light
Sound Symbolism
Form (sound of the words) + Meaning
Linguistic Sign
Linguistic side of the brain
Left side (Right ear)
Nonlinguistic side of the brain
Right side (Left ear)
Study of meaning in context
Pragmatics
Study of what words and larger structures mean
Semantics
Study of structure
Syntax
The idea that we are genetically predisposed to learning and processing languages
Innateness Hypothesis
Conditions that must be met in order for a speech act to be performed correctly
Felicity Conditions
Phrase of language where the meaning cannot be derived from the words or there structure
Idiom
Principle of Compositionality
Meaning of sentences/words + Structure
Theories of Language Acquisition
Immitation (wrong, produce unheard utterances), Reinforcement (wrong, corrections don't work), Active Construction of Grammar (yes!, children have lingusitic creativity and pattern recognition where they invent their own grammar which leads to overgeneralization)
Consonant Sounds
More restricted
Vowel Sounds
More open
Study of transmission of physical properties of sound
Acoustic phonetics
Each side of the brain is responsible for different tasks
Lateralization
Each side of our brain is resposible for the opposide side of the body
Contralateralization
Inability to perceive, produce, or process language due to physical brain damage
Aphasia
The idea that auditory word recognitions comes from a narrowing down of possibilities from context
Cohort Theory
An instance where there are multiple meanings assigned to a word which make it unclear
Lexical Ambiguity
An instance where the structure can lead to more than one interpretation
Syntactic/Structural Ambiguity
The study of the perception of sounds
Auditory Acoustics
The study of the production of sounds
Articulatory Acoustics
The three -s (possessive, plural, 3rd person)
-ed (past tense)
-ing (progressive)
-er (comparative)
-est (superlative
-ed/en (past participle)
Inflectional Morphology of English
A logically valid inference
Entailment
Not logically valid but still warranted inference
Implicature
The relationship of poodle to dog, a loss of specificity
Hyponymy
The relationship of dog to poodle, becoming more specific
Hypernymy
The relationship of dog to its tail, paw, collar, etc, a heirarchy of parts
Meronymy
The attribute of words have more than one meaning
Polysemy
Types of Antonyms
Gradable Pairs(Hot/Cold)
Complementary/Contradictory Pairs (Married/Unmarried)
Relational Opposites (Over/Under)
The four contexts
Linguisitc (previous utterances)
Epistemic (background knowledge)
Social (relationship)
Physical (setting)
Would, Could, Should
Auxillary Verbs
every, her, the, a, some, this, that
Determiners
and, or, but
Conjunction
quickly, very, fast, obviously, often
Adverbs
with, without, of, in, on, for, before, over, under
Prepositions
"What time is it?" is an example of ...
A direct speech act
"Can you tell me what time it" is an example of ...
An indirect speech act
Lenneberg's Characteristics of a Biologically Controlled Behavior
Intensive practice has little/no effect
Milestones
Critical periods
Appear before neccessary
Not conscious decision
Not triggered by external events
" I bet, I quit, I promise" are all instances of ...
Performative speech act
Grice's Conversational Maxims
Quantity
Quality
Manner
Relevance
Cat[s] and lunch[es] is an example of
Allomorphs
The -er of "hotter" (comparative) and the -er of "writer" (one who) is an example of ...
Homophonous Morphemes
Such as "am, is, was, were, being, be, and been" where the forms are unrelated in meaning/history
Suppletion
Partial or whole word repeat i.e "Hoity Toity" "Green Green
Reduplication
Adding an affix within a word
Infixation
"Blackboard", "Red-hot", "Volkswagen" are examples of the process...
Compounding
What adheres to the mental grammar of the native speakers
Grammaticality
Felicity condtions for questions
Doesn't know,
Wants to know,
Other person has information
Felicity conditions for request
Hasn't been done yet,
Other person is able,
Other person is willing,
Wants it done
Characterized by few function words and physical production difficulties
Broca's Aphasia
Characterized by fluent and grammatical, function words, but issues with content words
Wernicke's Aphasia
Linguists of Speech Act Theory
Austin & Searle
Linguist of Innateness of Language
Chomsky
Phonology problem language
-Are two different allophones of two separate phonemes
-Are allophones of one phoneme
A system that associates sounds (or gestures) with meaning in a way that uses sentences and words
Language
First supposed the concept of the brain not being a uniform mass
Franz Joesph Gall (localization)
First supposed the concept of language center being in the left side of the brain
Paul Broca
Had a tamping iron through his skull
Phineas Gage
The part of the brain that converts visual stimuli into auditory
Angular Gyrus
A sentence which is intially interpetted the wrong way is said to go through this
Garden path
Types of speech errors
Anticipation: substitute or add sound from later word
Persevervation: using sound from previous word "walking wabbits"
Metathesis: switching sounds
"dear old queen" -> "queer old dean"
Malapropisms: Work is the curse of the drinking class
Perception errors
Errors where word boundaries are misperceived
Behaviorist (Evil)
BF Skinner
1994's "The Language Instinct"
Steven Pinker
Locutionary Act
Production of utterance
Illocutionary Act
Speaker's intention
Perlocutionary Act
Effect on hearer
The same sound for different words
Homophony
Open class of words where they are easily added
Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs
Closed class of words where they have little meaning outside of grammatical function
Determiners, Conjunctions, Prepositions
The ability for a sentence/structure to loop forever (John Jacob ...)
Infinite Recursion
Characteristics of Animal Communication
Present, Physical
Pragmatics finds meaning to be composed of ...
Intonation, context, and word order
"The CAT chased the DOG", where "cat" and "dog" have these thematic roles
CAT=Agent
DOG=Patient
Negative Auxillary refers to ...
It ran away
vs.
It DID not run away
The ability to stand alone which can be tested through substituting with a pronoun or through movement
Constituency
Languages which only have free morphemes
Analytic Language
Languages which have both free and bound morphemes
Synthetic Languages
Affix added to both sides of word
Circumfixes
It could be a word but isn't (uglification)
(vegetarian = someone who eats veggies
humanitarian = someone who eats ...?)
Lexical Gaps
Same sound, different meaning
Homophonous Morphemes
Same morpheme with different phonetic realizations
Allomorphs
"Fish" could be spelled "ghoti" (lauGH) (wOmen) (naTIon)
George Bernard Shaw
Three aspects of ariculation
Voicing, Placement, and Manner
Class of speech sound categorized by native speaker as one sound
Phoneme
Complementary distribution
Allophones of same phoneme where instances don't occur in same phonetic environemt
Contradictory distribution
Occuring in the same phonetic environemt with two separate meanings
Causes sounds to become more like neighbor sound with regard to some feature
Assimilation
Causes neighbor sound to become more distinct in some feature like (colonel -> kernel)
Dissimilation
When adding a voiceless stop such as strength->strengKth
or dance->dants
Insertion
Chomsky as ChomPsky where P is compromise of [m] and [s] environment
[m] [p] [s]
nasal palatal oral
stop stop fricative
voiced v-less v-less
bilabial bilab. alveolar
"Did you" -> "Didja"
Palatalization
Permitted syllables, sound combinations
Phonotactics
Language Variation Types
Syntactic -Needs washed vs. Needs to be washed
Morphological - You guys, Y'all
Phonological - "route" as root vs rowt
Semantic - Devil's beating his wife
Lexical - Toboggan as hat vs. sled
Language Axiom
All languages change and all languages vary
Language Analysis
Synchronic - Particular point in time
Dichronic - Language across time
Style Shifting
Speech register or style depending on environment
(formality -> enunciate, informal -> assimilation or "fast speech")
Sociolinguistics deals with
Language Variation
Historical Lingusitics deals with
Language change
Language vs Dialect
Languages should not be mutually intelligible (but Dutch/German), Dialects should be (but Chinese, Mandarin, etc)
Dialect includes elements of variation
Grammatical, Syntactic, Lexical, Morphological differences
Accent is
Phonological variation
Idiolect
Language spoken by individual
Dialect Continuum
Dutch, Dutch, Germany Dutch, Dutchy German, German
Variation and Change can be accounted for through
Geography and Social borders, language contact
Great Vowel Shift
1400-1600s
1786 decided that all languages were related
Sir William Jones
Switching of postive and negative connotation
Polarity
Giving more general meaning to a word such as (hound -> any dog)
Extensions
Shortening a word (-we in weBLOG)
Clipping