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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Meaning
The conceptual or semantic aspect of a sign or utterance that permits us to comprehend the message being conveyed
Arbitrary
Describes the property of language whereby there is no natural or intrinsic relationship between the way a word is pronounced and its meaning
Form
Phonological or gestural representation of a morpheme or word
Conventional
The agreed on, though generally arbitrary relationship between the form and meaning of words
Sound Symbolism
The notion that certain sound combinations occur in semantically similar words. ex gl in gleam, glitter, glisten all relate to vision
Onomatopoeic
Words whose pronunciation suggest their meaning
Creative Aspect
Speakers' ability to combine the finite number of linguistic units of their language to produce and understand an infinite range of novel sentences
Linguistic Competence
The knowledge of a language represented by the mental grammar that accounts for the speakers' linguistic ability and creativity. It is unconscious knowledge
Linguistic Performance
The use of linguistic competence in the production and comprehension of language; behavior as distinguished from linguistic knowledge
Slips of Tongue
An involuntary deviation of an intended utterance. known as speech error
Grammar
The mental representation of a speakers' linguistic competence; what a speaker knows about a language, including its phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and lexicon. A linguistic description of a speakers mental grammar
Descriptive Grammar
A linguist's description or model of the mental grammar, including the units, structures, and rules. an explicit statement of what speakers know about the language
Mental Grammar
The internalized grammar that a descriptive grammar attempts to model
Grammatical
describes a well formed sequence of words, one conforming to the rules of syntax
Prescriptive grammar
rules of grammar that attempt to legislate what speakers' grammatical rules should be, rather than what they are
prestige dialect
dialect spoken by the people in positions of power
dialect
variety of a language whose grammar differs in systematic ways from other varieties.
standard dialect
the dialect considered to be the norm
teaching grammar
a set of language rules written to help speakers learn a foreign language or a different dialect of their language
gloss
a word in one language given to express the meaning of a word in another language
phonology
sound system of a language; the component of a grammar that includes the inventory of soundsand rules for their combination and pronunciation; the study of the sound systems of all languages
semantics
the study of the linguistic meaning of morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences
morphology
the study of the structure of words; the component of the grammar that includes the rules of word formation
syntax
the rules of sentence formation; the component of the mental grammar that represents speakers' knowledge of the structure of phases and sentences
lexicon
the component of the grammar containing speakers' knowledge about morphemes and words; a speakers mental dictionary.
universal grammar (UG)
the innate principles and properties that pertain to the grammars of all human languages
linguistic theory
"the laws of human language"
Neurolinguistics
study of the brain mechanisms and anatomical structures that underlie linguistic competence and performance
cortex
nerve cells that form the surface of the brain
cerebral hemispheres
to parts to the brain, left and right
corpus callosum
pathway connecting two halves of brain
contralateral
the brain uses the left side to perform functions on right side of body and vice versa
aphasia
language disfunction as result of brain injury
monogenetic theory of language origin
theory that all languages originated from one source
localization
different abilities and behaviors can be traced to specific parts of the brain
phrenology
practice of determining personality, intellect, and other matter by examining bumps on the skull
modularity
view that the brain was divided up into distinct anatomical faculties that were directly responsible for specific cognitive functions, including language
Broca's area (region)
front part of left hemisphere, if damaged would result in loss of speech
lateralized
term that refers to a function that is localized primarily on one side of the brain
Broca's aphasia
language disorder where person has labored speech, word finding pauses, and disturbed word orders
Wernicke's area
back portion of left hemisphere
Wenicke's aphasia
language disorder where person has lexical errors (word substitution) often producing jargon or non sense
hemiplegic
person with lesion in one side of brain
dichotic listening
techinique that uses auditory signals to observe the behavior of the individual hemispheres of the brain
jargon aphasia
substitution of one sound for another
anomia
inability to find the word you wish to speak
critical period
from birth to puberty where language acquisition proceeds easily
savant
individual who shows extroadinary skill in one are and is deficient in others
Specific Language Impairment (SLI)
difficulty in acquiring language in children with no other cognitive defects
homonyms (homophones)
different words with the same sound. ex bear and bare
lexicon
Greek for dictionary. ex your mental lexicon
orthography
spelling
grammatical category or syntactic class
whether a word is a noun, verb, adjective, etc.
content words
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs. also known as the "open class" because we regularly add words to these categories
function words
represent a grammatical function. ex the, of, it, he. also called the "closed class"
generic
a general form. now being proposed for the the third person singular form to replace he/she
morpheme
the most elemental unit of grammatical form
morphology
the study of internal structure of words and the rules by which words are formed
free morphemes
constitute words by themselves
bound morphemes
never words alone but always parts of words
prefixes
occur before other morphemes
suffixes
follow other morphemes
infixes
morphemes that are inserted into other morphemes
circumfixes
morphemes that are partially attached before and after another morpheme. known as "discontinuous morpheme"
stem
root morpheme combined with an affix
monomorphemic
word that contains only one morpheme
morphological rules
rules for combining morphemes to make stems and words
derivational morphemes
bound morphemes that create a new word when added to a root or stem
derived word
the form that results in the addition of a derivational morpheme
hierarchical structure
the order in which morphemes are added to form words
tree diagrams
used to represent the hierarchical organization of words
accidental gaps
well formed but non existing words
productive
type of morphological rule that can be used freely to form new words from other morphemes
compound
word formed by two or more words
back-formations
words that are accidentally derived by mistaking word endings as suffixes etc. ex enthuse from enthusiasm
eponyms
words derived from proper names
blend
word made from combining two words but not in entirety
inflectional morphemes
morphemes that never change the syntactic category