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38 Cards in this Set

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Conjunction
A function word that joins words and phrases of the same category. (and, or, but)
compliment vs modifier
Compliment- existence implied and semantic role determined by verb meaning. Often obligatory.(Bob eats Oatmeal- Oatmeal compliments eats. *Bob sleeps Oatmeal- oatmeal doesn't complement sleeps.) Complements are objects in transitive sentences.
Modifier- Added information; optional. Can be added to any verb (and other lexical catagories.) Bob slept yesterday. Bob slept in the closet.
deletion
A test for constituency- an entire phrase is removed from the sentence and still works. "Lee was planning to see the movie Friday and Jan was also. OR ... and Jan was planning to also. (phrases "see the movie" or "planning to see the movie".
Ellipsis- how a VP can be deleted only when there is an identical VP in context.
grammatical function:
Subject (see also object)
In English, subjects govern agreement on the verb or auxiliary verb that carries the main tense of the sentence, as exemplified by the difference in verb forms between he eats and they eat.

The subject has the grammatical function in a sentence of relating its constituent (a noun phrase) by means of the verb to any other elements present in the sentence, i.e. objects, complements and adverbials.
The subject is a phrasal constituent, and should be distinguished from parts of speech, which, roughly, classify words within constituents.
Grammatical Function: Object
An object in grammar is a sentence element and part of the sentence predicate. It denotes somebody or something involved in the subject's "performance" of the verb. As an example, the following sentence is given:

In the sentence "Mr Bobby kicked the ball", "ball" is the object.

"Mr Bobby" is the subject, the doer or performer, while "kick" is the action, and "ball" is the object involved in the action.

The main verb in the sentence determines whether there can or must be objects in the sentence, and if so how many and of what type.
head-final
Languages that place the head of a phrase at the end of that phrase. The head is the central, obligatory member of a phrase- the noun in the NP, preposition in the PP, etc.However, an AUX can be the head of a VP.
transitive verb
A verb that requires a subject and a compliment ((noun phrase) direct object.)
Monotransitive- I see you.
Ditransitive- I give you the book.
Cannot exhange word order.
intransitive verb
Verbs that don't require an object.
2 types, unergative and unaccusative.
lexical categories:
N, V, A, P, Adv., Det.
Classes of words grouped together based on their morphological and syntactic properties.
Determiners- the, a, an, this, that.
Mirror Effect
The way in which something behaves syntactically will either mirror or be mirrored by the way morphology works. As you build a complex word, you get different effects based on word order. "They [hit each other] made goats. They hit [made each other] goats.
movement
test of lexical phrase by topicalization, preposing, etc.
noun incorporation
a compound comprised of a noun and a verb. Babysit, housesit, catsit. Not very productive, doesn't work with many verbs in english.
Phrasal categories
NP- Noun Phrase
VP- Verb Phrase
AP- Adjective Phrase
PP- Prepositional Phrase
pseudopassives
intransitive, unergative verbs.
end in prepositions. doesn't work with unaccusatives and transitives.
The profs house was stepped on (by a giant).
Agent
Initiates or performs action. Jack kicked the ball (Jack is the agent). comes before verb.
Patient
to whom action of sentence is done. Acted upon. Thing that action happens to. comes after verb.
Theme
participant that sentence is said to be about. A thing that simply has a property that is being referred to. In a state or location or undergoes a change. In Robin slept, Robin is the theme.
Pragmatic amgiguity
more than 1 interpretation given the context.
Can you tell me the time?
(are you able to, or would you?)
Lexical ambiguity
A sentence in which a lexical item has 2 or more meanings.
(Pen you write with, pigs home)
"We had the president for dinner."
Structural ambiguity
More than 1 constituent structure possible.
We need more intelligent administrators.
instrument
The thing used for an action. Robin at the soup with a spoon. The spoon is the action.
Experiencer
An animate being that has some kind of perceptual or mental experience, such as seeing, hearing, knowing.
Bob heard the explosion. Bob is the experiencer, the explosion is the theme.
Recipient
person or thing that comes into possession of something.
Source
Where the thing starts out.
bob gave a book to pat.
Terry is agent and source, book is theme, pat is recipient.
noun
refers to real, imaginary and abstract things. Can be counted.
Regular plural ends in -s. can occur with articles and demonstratives. can be modified with adjectives.
Verbs
Refers to states of affairs and events. Expresses time- regular past is -ed. forms to indicate manner present -ing
Adjectives
Describes things that nouns refer to. can be used in sentences with verbs "to be" (Bob is funny). Can be modified (very, too, etc.) Can be comparative (-er, -est)
prepositions
express roles.
with, in, on, into, for, of, before, under.
Adverbs
used to express manner (quickly), attitude or judgment of speaker (unfortunately) frequency (often).
Determiners
used to express definiteness, indefiniteness, quantity.
The, A, every
conjunction
words or phrases of the same category are joined with conjunctions.
And, or, but.
recursion
property of a language allowing for the repeated application of a rule, yielding indefinite long sentences or infinite number of sentences. For example, an NP can contain DET N PP. That PP can contain an NP. "The man in the house in the suburbs at noon."
substitution
Replace an NP with a pronoun (he, she, it).
Replace a VP with "do so."
word order typology
SVO- English.
VSO- 19% Irish, Welsh, Arabic
VOS-
SOV- 44% Russian, Turkish.
unaccusative
subject is or comes to be in a state or position. Unaccusative subjects behave like transitive objects. Subject is both subject and object. Subject can be used in noun incorporation
unergative
subject is not said to be or come into a state or position.
Manner of motion (crawl), sudden undirected action (cough).
Unergative subject behave like transitive subjects.
psychological verbs
Type 1- subject is experiencer, object is stimulous. I love you.
Type 2- subject is stimulous, object is experiencer. I disgust you.
mirror effect
echoing between morphology and syntax, the way that something behaves syntactically will either mirror or be mirrored by the way the morphology works.