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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
articulatory phonetics
study of how speech sounds are produced
IPA
way to transcribe language; one symbol per sound
consonants
generated by putting obstruction in oral tract so sound going through it is perturbed; air from lungs has two roots: oral and nasal; three aspects of consonants: place, manner, and voicing
place of articulation
location where airflow is impeded; bilabial, labio-dental, interdental, alveolar, alveo-palatal, palatal, velar, glottal
manner of articulation
how the airflow is disrupted; stop, fricative, affricate, nasal, approximants, lateral approximants, taps/flaps
stops
complete, momentary stopping of the airflow from the lungs; [p, b, t, d, k, g]
fricatives
airflow is severely restricted or otherwise occluded, causing continuous stream of turbulence; [f, v, s, z, h]
nasals
technically could be called nasal stops; consonant produced by airflow bypassing the oral cavity and going through the nose [m, n]
approximants
airflow is just barely impeded, making them sound like short vowels; [w, j]
lateral approximants
airflow goes around the tongue instead of over it; [l]
voiced consonants
vocal folds are close together; air passes b/t them and causes vibration
vowels
unobstructed airflow, voiced, formed by moving tongue and jaw; four dimensions: height, color (front/back), tenseness, roundedness
dipthong
combination of two vowels that only takes up time of one; [ai, ao; oi]
natural class
set of speech sounds that all share at least one phonetic feature
obstruent
cover term for stops, fricatives, and affricatives - the three classes of consonant sounds that impede or obstruct airflow by constricting vocal passage
sonorant
class of consonant sounds comprising nasals and liquids
sibilant
member of a set of fricative sounds made by passing continuous stream of air through narrowed passage in the vocal tract, thereby causing hissing, such as that created b/t the blade of the tongue and the back of the alveolar ridge in the production of [s]
phoneme
smallest linguistic unit that distinguishes meaning
allophone
different pronunciations of a phoneme in different environments
minimal pair
two words with all sounds the same except one
contrastive distribution
different phonemes; minimal pair w/ meaning difference
complementary distribution
allophones of the same phoneme; occur in different environments
free variation
allophones of the same phoneme; minimal pair w/o meaning difference
assimilation
process by which a sound becomes similar to a neighboring sound; 3 types: voicing, place, and manner
dissimilation
process by which two nearby sounds become less alike w/ respect to some feature
deletion
process by which sound is no longer realized
insertion
process by which sound is produced that is not part of the phonemic representation
metathesis
process by which sound is pronounced at different position than usual
dimensions of language variation
vocabulary, morphology, syntax, phonology