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117 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
prescriptive rules
rules of condemned usage (e.g. don't split an infinitive), irrelevant to study of linguistics
descriptive rules
general statement of systematicity in language, observable patterns that languages follow, representations of native speakers' linguistic knowledge
"code model" of communication
speaker's thought --(encoding)--> says message ----> hears message
--(decoding)--> hearer's thought
too simple because it neglects context and inference
context
includes physical environment, participants, social setting, prior discourse, and cultural norms and expectations; makes things go without saying
inference
the conveyed message is not identical with or goes beyond what is literally said
speech acts
an action carried out through language; 6 types: representatives, questions, commissives, declarations, expressives, verdictives, directives
representatives
represent a state of affairs, are either true or false; e.g. assertions, statements, claims, hypotheses
commissives
commit the speaker to a course of action; e.g. promises, threats, vows
declarations
result in the state they name; e.g. blessings, hirings, firings, baptism, arrest, marriage
expressives
indicate the speaker's attitudes; e.g. greetings, apologies, thanks, condolences
verdictives
make assessments or judgements; e.g. appraisals, assessments, convictions
directives
intended to get the addressee to carry out an action; e.g. commands, requests, challenges, invitations
locution
what is said, the literal meaning of the words
illocution
what is meant, what the speaker tries to convey with the words
Grice's cooperative principle
speakers cooperate, even when they argue; all speakers design their utterances in accordance with certain norms of talk and can expect others to as well
Grice's maxims
how people cooperate in speech; 4 maxims: quantity, relevance, manner, quality
maxim of quantity
say enough, but not too much
e.g. "do you have any pets?" "I have two cats" -> I have two and no more than two cats and no other pets
maxim of relevance
be relevant
e.g. "Do you have any pets?" "I'm allergic" -> No, I don't have any pets, and I assume you'll wonder why so I'll just tell you it's because I'm allergic
maxim of manner
be orderly
e.g. giving directions in the order you'll take them
maxim of qality
say what you believe to be true; telling the truth as the default makes it possible to achieve communication effects with obviously untrue statements (i.e. sarcasm)
indirect speech act
a speech act that involves an apparent violation of the cooperative principle but is in fact indirectly cooperative; difference in locution and illocution
e.g. "Is the boss in?" "The light's on in her office."
direct speech act
a speech act in which the locution and illocution coincide
implicature
the meaning which is inferred from the fact that a maxim is flouted
corpus
'body' of data
turn taking
idea that conversations consist of turns during which the speaker "holds the floor"; we get the floor through cues such as falling intonation, eye gaze/body movement, or a pause
backchanneling
when someone speaks without intending to take the floor; signal that the hearer is paying attention; e.g. yeah or okay
adjacency pairs
a pair of turns produced by two speakers; they are contiguous, ordered, and matched; sometimes the contiguous requirement is violated with an insertion sequence ("where's the milk?" "the skim milk?" "yeah." "on the counter.")
repair
trying to fix something that was said; can be self-initiated or other-initiated
metaphor
understanding one thing in terms of another; mapping of concepts from one semantic domain onto another domain; helps us understand complex phenomena; e.g. WAR IS ARGUMENT
metonymy
referring to one entity by means of another, related entity; the two entities are semantically contiguous; part for whole, cause for effect, producer for product
meronymy
part-whole relation; e.g. engine is a meronym of car
prototype
the best, clearest example of a category; combines all of the typical features; results from frequent exposure
prototype theory
categories are organized around prototypes; to be included in the category some but not all of the characteristic features must be present; category membership is a matter of degree; members resemble each other, but are not equally good representatives
mental lexicon
where speakers "get" their words from when tehy talk
referential meaning
a words literal meaning; denotation
social meaning
information about the speaker's background or the context
affective meaning
information about the speaker's emotions or attitude
lexicon
the list of all words and morphemes stored in a native speaker's memory; this internalized dictionary includes all nonpredictable information about lexical items
hyponymy
type relation; e.g. car is a hyponym of vehicle
antonymy
opposite meanings; can be gradable (e.g. rich-poor) or non-gradable (e.g. even-odd)
converseness
reciprocol relationship between two words; e.g. husband-wife
synonymy
two forms with the same meaning
homonymy
one form with multiple unrelated meanings; e.g. bank - place where you take your money or the area next to a river
polysemy
one form with multiple related meanings; e.g. summit - top of a hill or the meeting of top people in power
homography vs. homophony
homographs are homonyms that are spelled the same, while homophones are homonyms that sound the same but are spelled differently
content words
open class; words with a definite meaning; can be formed via morphological processes
function words
closed class; grammar words; CAPPA: Conjunctions Articles Prepositions Pronouns Auxiliaries
deixis
a situation in which the words take their meaning completely from context and mean nothing without the contextual information.
spatial deixis
context depends on where it is said; e.g. here or there
temporal deixis
context depends on when it is said; e.g. now, today, or yesterday
personal deixis
context depends on who says it; e.g. I, we, or you
semantic role
the way in which the referent of the noun phrase contributes to the state, action, or situation described by the sentence
agent
responsible initiator of an action
patient
the entity that undergoes a certain change of state
experiencer
that which receives a sensory input
instrument
the intermediary through which an agent performs the action
cause
any natural force that brings about a change of state
recipient
that which receives a physical object
benefactive
that for which an action is performed
locative
the location of an action or state
temporal
the time at which the action or state occurred
morpheme
smallest meaningful unit in language; cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts
free morpheme
can stand alone as a complete word
bound morpheme
cannot stand on its own as a complete word; must attach to another morpheme
stem
typically a free morpheme; the core of the word to which other morphemes attach; carries the main semantic content
affix
bound; the morphemes which attach to a stem; 4 types: prefix, suffix, circumfix, infix
prefix
attaches to the beginning of the stem
suffix
attaches to the end of the stem; sometimes alters teh spelling of the stem
circumfix
goes around teh stem; rare, does not exist in modern English
infix
inserted into the stem; rare in the world's languages
bound stems or cranberry morphs
stems that aren't actually free morphemes; e.g. cran in cranberry
inflectional morpheme
bound morpheme that creates variant forms of a word to mark its syntactic function in a sentence
derivational morpheme
morpheme that derives a word of one class or meaning from a word of another class or meaning
reduplication
all or part of a stem is repeated
degrees of synthesis
indicates number of morphemes per word
isolating - one
synthetic - multiple but one stem
polysynthetic - multiple stems
degrees of fusion
indicates number of meanings per morpheme
agglutinating - one
fusional - multiple
word formation processes
affixation, compounding, zero-derivation, clipping, blending, acronym, initialism, backformation, and borrowing
affixation
4 kinds: prefix, suffix, infix, or circumfix; adding an affix to change the meaning
compounding
putting existing words dogether to create new words; e.g. blackbird
zero-derivation
changing what word class it belongs to without changing it's structure; to noun a verb
clipping
shortening a word and keeping the meaning; e.g. examination --> exam
blending
combining two words; e.g. smoke + fog = smog
acronym
shortenings in which the initial letters of an expression are joined and pronounced as a word; e.g. NASA
initialism
shortenings in which the initial letters are pronounced as individual letters; e.g. FBI
backformation
e.g. creating pronunciate from pronunciation
bound stems or cranberry morphs
stems that aren't actually free morphemes; e.g. cran in cranberry
inflectional morpheme
bound morpheme that creates variant forms of a word to mark its syntactic function in a sentence
derivational morpheme
morpheme that derives a word of one class or meaning from a word of another class or meaning
reduplication
all or part of a stem is repeated
degrees of synthesis
indicates number of morphemes per word
isolating - one
synthetic - multiple but one stem
polysynthetic - multiple stems
degrees of fusion
indicates number of meanings per morpheme
agglutinating - one
fusional - multiple
word formation processes
affixation, compounding, zero-derivation, clipping, blending, acronym, initialism, backformation, and borrowing
affixation
4 kinds: prefix, suffix, infix, or circumfix; adding an affix to change the meaning
compounding
putting existing words dogether to create new words; e.g. blackbird
zero-derivation
changing what word class it belongs to without changing it's structure; to noun a verb
clipping
shortening a word and keeping the meaning; e.g. examination --> exam
blending
combining two words; e.g. smoke + fog = smog
acronym
shortenings in which the initial letters of an expression are joined and pronounced as a word; e.g. NASA
initialism
shortenings in which the initial letters are pronounced as individual letters; e.g. FBI
backformation
e.g. creating pronunciate from pronunciation
borrowing
using words from other languages; e.g. quesadilla or tsunami
constituent
syntactic unit that functions as part of a larger unit within a sentence; verb phrase, noun phrase, or prepositional phrase
constituency tests
substitution test (constituents can be substituted by a single word); question test (can you replace it with a question word, and then answer the question with that exact phrase?)
lexical ambiguity
same word has different meanings
structural ambiguity
different meanings caused by different possible syntactic parsings by PS rules
garden path ambiguity
type of structural ambiguity in which the beginning of a sentence suggests a different structure than the complete sentence
phrase structure rules
rules that describe the composition of constituents in underlying structure; e.g. S --> NP (AUX) VP
subject
a noun phrase immediately dominated by S in a phrase structure
direct object
the noun phrase in a clause that, together with the verb, usually forms the verb phrase constituent; the object NP is immediately dominated by the VP
indirect object
daughter of VP, sister of V; precedes direct object
oblique
prepositional object; NP that is not a subject, direct object, or indirect object
passive
Bob polished the car. --> The car was polished by Bob.
1) switch OBJ NP and SUBJ NP 2) insert form of passive auxiliary be 3) mark new OBJ NP with by
yes/no question
Bob has polished the car. --> Has Bob polished the car? or Bob polished the car. --> Did Bob polish the car?
switch SUBJ NP and AUX; possibly preceded by insertion of form of auxiliary do
wh-question
Bob polished the car. --> What did Bob polish?
1) insert form of auxiliary do 2) switch SUBJ NP and AUX 3) replace OBJ with wh-PRO 4) move wh-PRO to the front
SUB-AUX inversion
switching SUBJ NP and AUX
do-support
insertion of form of auxiliary do
wh-movement
moving wh-PRO to the front