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19 Cards in this Set

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adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
puberty
the time of life when sex glands become functional
hypothalamus
A brian area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the the brain and body.
pituitary gland
A glad in the brain that responds to a signal from the hypothalamus by producing many hormones, including those that regulate growth and control other glands, among them the adrenal and sex glands
adrenal glands
Two glands, located above the kidneys in the lower black that produce hormones (including the "stress" hormones epinephrine [adrenaline] and norepinephrine).
HPA axis
The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, a route follwoed by many kinds of hormones to trigger the changes of puberty and to regulate stress, growth, sleep , appetite, sexual excitement, and various other bodily changes.
gonads
the paired sex glands (ovaries in F, testicles in M). Which are activated at adolescence by the pituitary. GnRH in particular causes the gonads to enlarge and increase prod. of sex hormones, estradiol (chief estrogen) in F and testosterone in Ms. eventually produce gametes (sperm in M, ova in F)
estrogen
sex hormone. chief one is estradiol which females produce more of than men.
testosterone
a sex hormone, the best known of the androgens (male hormones) secreted in far greater amounts in men than women.
menarche
A girl's first menstrual period, signaling that she has begun ovulation. Pregnancy is biologically possible, but ovulation and menstration are often irregular for years after menarche.
spermarche
A boy's first ejaculation of sperm. Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm production. Spermarch occurs during sleep (wet dream) or via direct stimulation.
growth spurt
The relatively sudden and rapid physical growth that occurs during puberty. Each body part increases in size on a schedule: Weight usually precedes height, and the limbs precede the torso.
primary sex characteristics
The parts of the body that are directly involved in reproduction, including the vagina, uterus, ovaries, testicle, and penis.
secondary sex characteristics
Physical traits taht are not directly involved in reproduciton but that indicate sexual maturity, sucha s a man's beard and a woman's breasts.
body image
a person's idea of how his or her body looks. Anxiety about body image can lead to poor nutrition in teenagers who have a distorted perception and focus on and exaggerate the problems of their changing bodies.
childhood sexual abuse
Any erotic activity that arouses an adult and excites, shames, or confuses a child, whether or not the victim protests and whether or not genital contact is involved. Most common just after puberty (age 10-15). Increases liklihood of drug abuse, eating disorders, suicide and pregnancy. Causes difficulty establishing sexual relationships.
drug use
Few adolescents imagine they could become addicted. Worldwide most young people use at least one drug by age 18.
drug abuse and addiction
adolescents often don't notice how quickly an experimental use switches to regular use that causes harm and then to addiction when they need the drug to feel normal. Addiction is more likely the younger a person is the first time they use and are more likely to use at 35 than those who tried the same drug in college.
sexually transmitted infection (STI)
a disease spread by sexual contact, including syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, chlamydia, and HIV