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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Chemical Name
Chemical structure
Side Effects
other than desired effects
Generic Name:
Given by US Parmacopedia
Trade Name
brand or patent
Half Life
lenght of time when 1/2 the drug dosage is still active in the body
a condition in which the dose must be increased to obtain the desired effects
3 Things Drugs are used for
1) Treat disease
2) Prevention
3) Diagnose
What info must perscriptions and orders supply?
1) Pt name 2)Name of Med
3)Dose 4) Frequency 5)Route of admin 6)Physician sig.
Before giving medication what should you check?
Pt Chart for: Allergys, Hx of disease, valid order, how Pt responded to previous Tx
Routes of admin, from fastest to slowest?
1) IV 2) Inhaler 3) IM Intra muscular 4) Sub Q 5) Sublingual/ rectal absorbtion 6) PO (oral) 7) Topical
Drugs that mimic the effect of epinephrine
Drug that exerts a constricting effect on blood vessels
Phase related to route of administration (the method by which a drug is delivered to the body)
Effect of acetylcholine on smooth muscle
Phase related to mechanism of action (mechanism of action by which a drug causes its therapeutic effect)
Absolute Contraindication
Drug may not be given for any reason
Compounds that produce allergice or infflammatory responses
Effect of acetylcholine on smooth muscle
Has receptor affinity and exerts an effect
Phase related to metabolism of drug. Time required for: 1)Drug absorption 2) Drug action 3)Drug distribution in body 4)Metabolization and excretion of drug
Factors that effect aerosolized drug distribution
1 )Pt breathing pattern
2) Aerosol partical size
Mimics the effects of acetycholine
Has receptor affinity by produces no effect
Rapidly developing tolerance
Peak effect
Maximum effect from drug dosage
Medications are used for...
1) Reverse bronchospasms 2) COPD/Asthma mgmt 3)Deliver antibiotics 4)Decrease inflammation 5) Deliver special agents
Advantages of aersol delivery of drugs...
1 )Immediate onset at the desired site 2)Reduced side effects from systemic absorbtion 3)smaller dose of potent drugs 4)ability of Pt to self admin meds
Theraputic Effect:
Systemic Effect:
Systemic=absorption into bloodstream via GI tract or pulmonary mucosa
Three commonly recognized mechanisms for inducing bronchodilation
1) Beta-adrenergic or sympathomimetic
3)Xanthines (methalxanthines)
Sympathomimetic or Beta-adrenergic
1) Promotes relaxation of smooth muscle by stimulating intracellular production of cAMP
2)Promotes bronchodilation via neurotransmitter norepinephrine (Adrenergics)
Alpha (a)
Located everywhere
-Stimulation results in vasoconstriction
-Vasopressor effect increases BP.
Beta 1 (B1)
-Located in the heart
-Stim results in increase HR and Increased myocardical contractility
(Inotropic agent: Increases the muscle contraction)
Beta 2 (B2)
Is desired effect: (Agonist)
-Located in smooth muscle of bronchi and uterus
-Relaxes bronchial s/m
-Stim. mucocilliar activity
-Mild inhibitory act on inflammatory mediator release
Non Catecholamines
Catecholamines: Mixed B1/B2 and B1/B2/a
Non Catecholamines: B2 only
Hazards of Bronchodilation
-Chlorofluorocarbon:induced bronchospasm
-Dixxiness -Hypokalemia -Nausea -Tolerance -Worsening ventrilation perfusion ration (decrease PaO2)
Sympathomimetic or B2-adrenergic
-largest group of aerosolized meds -indication presense of reversible airway obstruction -short & long acting agents -racemic ephinephrin
Anticholinergic Bronchodilatons (Parasympatholytics)
-promote bronchodialation by blocking bronchonstriction
-block cholinergic: induced bronchoconstriction
Anticholinergic Bronchodilatons (Parasympatholytics)
1)longer onset that most beta agonist drugs 2)extended duration of effectiveness 3)useful in mgmt of COPD 4)limited usefullness in reactive airway Dx (asthma)
1)admin via IV or PO for mgmt of chronic brochospasms 2)inhibition of phosphodiesterase 3)numerous side effects & hazards drug interaction complications
Indications for Bronchodialators
1)presence of reversible airway obastruction 2)Mgmt of chronic bronchospasms in COPD
Selection of Bronchodilators
Adrenergic: rapid onset of action
Anticholinergc: mgmt of COPD
Contraindications and side effects of bronchodilators
Most common: tachycardia, headache, nervousness, nausea