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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Respiratory Quotient (RQ = )

*RQ is the same as RER for all intents and purposes*
RQ for glucose
RQ for long chain fatty acids (e.g., palmitate)
RQ for protein
caloric expenditure =
VO2 * 5 kcal/L
RQ (RER) for man at rest
.83 (55% fat, 45% carbohydrate being oxidized)
work rate vs:

*Artieral pH
as work rate increases:

*VE increases linearly until ventilatory threshold is reached and then increases exponentially (hyperventilation)
*PAO2 remains the same
*PaO2 remains the same (PaO2 & % Hb saturation remain the same throughout exercise)
*PvO2 decreases (muscles consuming more oxygen)
*PvCO2 increases (muscles producing more CO2)
*PaCO2 decreases once ventilatory threshold is reached (due to hyperventilation)
*Artieral pH remains the same until VO2 max is reached and then decreases (due to lactic acid buildup)
linear VE vs. work rate is due to (4)
catecholamines (NE, Epi)

muscle & joint receptors

plasma [K] or osmolatiry

"Central Command"
nonlinear VE vs. work rate is due to
hyperventilation (hyperventilation reduces acidosis by blowing off CO2)
HR max =
HR max = 220 - age
SV vs. work rate (VO2)
SV increases initially with increasing work rate and then levels off at VO2 > 50% VO2 max
HR is governed by
SA node
SV is determined by

-initial heart stretch causes doubling of SV
-increasing HR means a shorter filling time causing SV to level off
increased active muscle blood flow is due to (2)
increased MAP

vasodilation in active muscle groups
a-v O2 difference increases with increasing work rate due to (3)
increased capillary perfusion (increased area and decreased thickness)

decreased myocyte PO2 (increased PaO2 -PcapO2 difference)

right shift in O2-Hb dissociation curve (Hb readily unloads O2 into active muscle due to increased temperature, PCO2 and decreased pH)
MAP vs. work rate (VO2)
MAP increases with increasing work rate

*in a healthy person, SBP increases while DBP remains roughly the same at every level of exercise*
aerobic supply of ATP is from
mitochondrial oxidation of:

-carbohydrate (major-45% at rest)
-fat (major-55% at rest)
-protein (minor-5% at rest)
anaerobic supply of ATP (4)
stored ATP (minor)

CP + ADP --> ATP + C (major)


glycolysis (glycogenolysis produces glucose that can be run through glycolysis to produce ATP)

*[CP] is 3X [ATP]*
anaerobically provided ATP is important when (2)
transitioning from one level of activity to a higher level of activity

exercise demands exceed the anaerobic threshold of the individual (anaerobic threshold precipitates the ventilatory threshold)
lactic acid appears in the blood when
the anaerobic threshold has been exceeded
anaerobic threshold for untrained vs. highly trained individual
anaerobic threshold for untrained individual: 50% of VO2 max

anaerobic threshold for highly trained individual: 85-90% of VO2 max
ATP levels are maintained by

*muscle ATP levels seldom drop below 70% of normal due to CP ([CP] is 3X [ATP]*
RER vs. work rate (VO2)
RER increases with increasing work rate (VO2)

*under steady state conditions
*under high intensity conditions
under steady state conditions, RER >0.85 (reflects increased carbohydrate use and decreased fat use)

under high intensity condition, RER > 1.0 (reflects hyperventilation)
RER vs. fitness level
RER decreases with increasing fitness level (trained individual will burn more fat than untrained individual at any give level of exercise)
carbohydrate (glucose) utilization vs. work rate (VO2)
carbohydrate utilization increases with increasing work rate (VO2)

*although [insulin] decreases with increasing work rate, insulin sensitivity increases with increasing work rate*
at low exercise intensities, blood ____ is a major energy substrate
free fatty acid
blood free fatty acid utilization vs. work rate (VO2)
blood free fatty acid utilization decreases with increasing work rate (VO2)
blood ____ is important in high oxidative red (slow twitch, type I) fibers
VO2 =
VO2 = CO * a-v O2 difference
increase in VO2 max with training is due to (2)
increased CO
-due to increased SV

increased a-v O2 difference
-due to more capillaries (increased area) and mitochondria (increased capacity to synthesize ATP especially from free fatty acids)
increased mitochondrial content in response to aerobic exercise results in (3)
increased capacity to synthesize ATP aerobically from free fatty acids

increased endurace capacity

increased reliance on fat as a metabolic fuel at any given work rate
rate pressure product (RPP = )
RPP measures
myocardial oxygen need
RPP untrained vs. trained individual
RPP is higher in the untrained individual (higher HR and higher SBP) than in the trained individual (lower HR and lower SBP)