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103 Cards in this Set

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fungus vs fungi
one fungus, two fungi
Is a Fungus Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic?
Eukaryotic
A fungus is _____-bearing
spore-bearing.

It can duplicate itself in spore gorm (genetically identical)
Fungus eat by absorbing nutrients. Most fungi are ______, heterotrophic organisms that feed on dead organic matter
saprobes
saprobes
heterotrophic organisms that feed on dead organic matter
What are three positive Roles of Fungi?
1) FUngi are decomposers
2) Industrial applications
3) Research
Fungi are decomposers. They release ______ back into the environment, make available to plants for recycling.
carbon/minerals
There are several industrial applications of fungus. Name 3.
1) Foods- cheese, bread, soy sauce
2) Drinks- beer, wine, sake
3) Antibiotics, insecticides, etc (ex. penicillin, cephalosporin)
Research. ________ for fundamental biological processes
Ideal experimental system
Fungi also play a negative role. THey cause diseases in ___, ____, and ____
plants (dutch elm disease)
animals (ring worm)
humans
It is difficult to cure fungal infections because both the _____ and ______ are eukaryotes
target
host

*all prokaryotes have something to target with a certain drug, but Fungi are eukaryotic, so harder to target with something specific, difficult to cure
What are the four main differences between Fungi and Plants?
1) Fungi have NO CHLOROPHYLL
2) Fungi have CHITIN
3) Fungi are NOT TRULY MULTICELLULAR
4) Fungi are HETEROTROPHIC eukaryotes
Chitin is a homopolymer of _____
N-acetyglucosamine

It is a structural polysaccharide

N-acetyglucosamine homopolymer is not found in plants
Fungi are either ____ or ____
yeasts
molds
Fungi are either yeasts or molds or both, some are ______
biphasic/dimorphic
Fungi can be biphasic/dimorphic, depending on ____
temperature

Mold-like phase at 25oC
Yeast-like phase at 37oC
A yeast is a ______ fungus with a single nucleus
unicellular
Molds are fungi with _____
hyphae

hyphae are long, branched filaments
Mold has ______, a thick mass of hyphae
mycelium
septate fungi
individual cells are separated by cross-walls
Give an example of a septate fungi
penicillium notatum
coenocytic fungi
there are no septa
Give an example of a coenocytic fungi
Rhizopus stolonifer (bread mold)
What has no septa?
Coenocytic fungi
septum vs septa vs septate
septum- one
septa- many
septate- describes fungus with septa
In asexual reproduction, the spores produced are ____
genetically identical to the parent

depending on structure spore comes from is how it is named
In sexual Reproduction, cells of ______ fuse
opposite mating type
In sexual reproduction, cells of opposite mating type fuse. _____ fuse, ____ mix. Cell is now diploid
nuclei fuse, chromosomes mix
In sexual reproduction, cells of opposite mating type fuse. Nuclei fuse, chromosomes mix. Cell is now diploid. Cell then undergoes _____ to return to haploid state.
division
In sexual reproduction, cells of opposite mating type fuse. Nuclei fuse, chromosomes mix. Cell is now diploid. Cell then undergoes division to return to haploid state. ____ then develop from cells in haploid state
spores

Ex:
MATa mates with MATb --> MATab diploid with mixed chromosomes --> divide --> disect out and get haploid
Give the name of bakers yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Give 5 classes of Fungi
1) Chytridiomycota
2) Zygomycota
3) Ascomycota
4) Basidiomycota
5) Deuteromycota
CHYTRIDIOMYCOTA. What are chytrids?
group of aquatic fungi with flagellated spores
Chytrids are ____ and like to kill amphibians
parasitic
ZYGOMYCOTA have what kind of hyphae?
Coenocytic hyphae w/septa only where reproductive cells are formed
ZYGOMYCOTA. In the mycelium, thousands of asexually produces ______ are being produceed within ______
sporangiospores
sporangium
Give an example of a zygomycota
bread mold- Rhizopus stolonifer
Give the formal name of the fungi that causes bread mold
rhizopus stolonifer
it is a zygomycota
Besides bread mold, Rhizopus can be found in what two things?
sake, cortisone
Ascomycota is a ___ fungi
sac
Ascomycota is a sac fungi. Its characteristic reproductive structure is a sac-like ____
ascus
What kind of hyphae is in the mycelium of ascomycota?
septate
Asexual reproduction of ascomycota leads to the formation of ______
conidiospores
Give three examples of ascomycota
unicellular yeast
cup fungi
truffles
Basidiomycota is commonly known as the ___
mushroom
What is the reproductive structure of basidiomycota?
Basidium
Basidium is the reproductive structure on which sexual spores are produced after _____
hyphal fusion
Give the name of a common mushroom
Agaricus campestris
(white mushroom @ grocery market. ok to eat)
Give the name of the basidiomycota that looks good but kills, also known as the 'destroying angel'
Amanita phalloides
Amanita phalloides is always fatal and produces what two toxins?
phalloidin
alpha-amanitin
Phalloidin, produced by Amanita phalloides, a basidiomycota, targets what?
liver
Alpha-amanitin, produced by Amanita phalloides, a basidiomycota, targets what?
GI tract
deuteromycota are also known as ____
fungi imperfecti
Why are deuteromycota known as fungi imperfecti?
- no known sexual cycle
- varied types of asexual spores
Give two examples of deuteromycota that are human pathogens
1) Candida albicans - thrush in mouth
2) Histoplasma capsulatum - disease in lungs
Give an example of a deuteromycota that is helpful to humans
penicillium
What are the five groups of mycoses (fungal diseases) transmitted by inhalation of spores?
1) Subcutaneous
2) Cutaneous
3) Superficial
4) Opportunistic
5) Systemic - throughout the body, affects many tissues/organs
Subcutaneous- fungal infections caused by ____
spores implanted in puncture wounds
cutaneous- fungal infections of _____
hair, nails, and skin
Superficial- fungal infections on _____ or ____
hair shafts or skin surface
Give an example of a fungus that infects the hairshaft (superficial)
black piedra
Opportunistic. Give an example of a fungus that causes opportunistic mycoses
Candida albicans
What is another name for valley fever?
Coccidioidomycosis
What is the causing agent of valley fever?
Coccidioides immitis
What does Coccidioides immitis produce that can be inhaled?
produces ARTHROSPORES that can be inhaled
What are the symptoms of valley fever?
respiratory infection, flu-like symptoms
Coccidioides immitis produces arthrospores that are inhaled and then swell to yield _____
spherules that cause inflammation
Coccidioides immitis produces arthrospores that are inhaled and then swell to yield spherules that cause inflammation. Spherules pop and release _____ in human lungs
endospores

-may reinfect and start cycle over
Describe the developmental cycle of Coccidioides immitis
Outside the body, the organism exists as a septate mycelium. It segments to form airborne arthrospores, which are inhaled. In the respiratory tract, the arthrospores swell to yield a large body, the spherule, that segments and breaks down to release endospores. When released to the environment, the endospores form germ tubes and then the mycelium.
Coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) can become chronic, especially in ______. It is systemic.
immunosupressed
Dermatophytosis is a general name for a fungal disease of the ____, ____, and ___
hair, skin, and nails
Dermatophytosis is also known as _____
tinea infections
athlete's foot
tinea pedis
ringworm of the head
tinea capitis
ringworm of the body
tinea corporis
jock itch
tinea cruris
ringworm of the nails
tinea unguim
Pathogenecity- Dermatophytes invade keratinized structure and produce _____ to metabolize _____ as a nutrient
keratinase
keratin
The causes of dermatophytosis are a series of fungi called dermatophytes. Give 3 examples.
Trichophyton (ascomycete)
Microsporum (ascomycete)
Epidermophyton (deuteromycete)
What are three major symptoms of Dermatophytosis?
itching, bad odor, rash
Symptoms of Dermatophytosis include itching, bad odor, rash, accompanied by ______ which exude fluid when scratched leaving a scaly ring.
blister-like lesions
Symptoms of Dermatophytosis include itching, bad odor, and rash, accompanied by blister-like lesions which exude fluid when scratched leaving a scaly ring. Also, ____, change of _____, and inflammation may occur
hair loss
change of hair color
What are three forms of treatment for dermatophytosis
1) Use of powders
2) Change Local pH
3) Anti-fungal
use of powders
powders dry infected area
Change Local pH (2 pts)
1) Certain acids are active against fungi
2) undecyclenic acid is the main ingredient of Desenex
Desenex is an ointment, with its main ingredient being ______, that is active against fungi
Undecyclenic acid
Anti-Fungal (2 types)
1) Miconazole (micatin)- topical, for vagina
2) Griseofulvin- oral, causes hyphae to shrivel
Antifungals. What type of drug is an antifungal?
Polyenes
Polyenes combine with ____ in fungal plasma membrane
sterols
Polyenes combine with sterols in fungal plasma membrane. This makes the membrane excessively _____
permeable
Antifungals come from _____
Streptomyces
Antifungals are used to treat systemic fungal diseases such as _____ and _____
coccidioidmycosis, histoplasmosis
Why do antifungals have a limited use?
toxicity to kidneys limits use
Give two examples of Imidazoles (antifungal antibiotic)
Clotrimazole, ketaconazole
Are imidazoles natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic?
synthetic
Imadazoles interferes with sterol synthesis in fungi, with possibly other _______ effects
antimetabolic
Imidazoles treats _______
cutaneous mycoses
Ketoconazole, taken orally, can be used for _______
systemic mycoses
Imidazoles has possible ____ damage
liver
What has a similar mechanism of action as imidazoles?
triazoles such as fluconazole
Griseofulvin blocks ________ assembly and interfere with ______, inhibits fungal reproduction
microtuble
mitosis
Griseofulvin comes from ____
Penicillium
Griseofulvin is used to treat ______ because it selectively binds keratin
superficial mycoses