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88 Cards in this Set

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How are soilborne bacterial diseases transmitted?
introduction of soil to body by an abrasion, cut or wound

Inhalation of dust
Bacterial Disease agents are often ______since they live in soil and must be able to resist environmental extremes.
spore-formers
What is the cause of Anthrax?
Bacillus anthracis
What are the three types of anthrax?
Pulmonary or inhalation (inhalation of spores)

Gastrointestinal (consumption of conatminated meat)

Cutaneous (inoculation of spores into cuts in skin)
What disease is associated with pulmonary or inhalation anthrax?
Woolsorter's disease

(worst type of anthrax you can get is pulmonary or inhalation)
With anthrax, is direct person-to-person transmission likely?
No. it is unlikely
What are some other sources of bacillus anthracis?
violin bows
leather jackets
bioterrorism
With anthrax, spores germinate when?
on contact with human tissues
Why is bacillus anthracis hard to phagocytose?
Thick capsule on cells
Bacillus anthracis produces toxins which work together to kill host cells. Name three toxins.
Edema factor (EF)
Protective antigen (PA)
Lethal factor (LF)
What does Edema factor (EF) do?
EF converts ATP to cAMP, cAMP overproduced

cAMP-intracellular signaling molecule- things in cell go crazy with too much cAMP
What does Protective antigen (PA)do?
Helps bacteria bind human cells
What does Lethal factor (LF) toxin do?
Causes death of human cells
What is used to treat anthrax?
penicillin (ciprofloxacin or doxycycline are given if bacteria are resistant to penicillin)
How would you remove bacillus anthracis spores from contaminated areas?
burying them in lime or incinerating them
What vaccine is used for anthrax?
cell-free filtrate of B. anthracis

6 inoculations over 18 months
Anthrax is usually a disease of ____
farm animals (cattle, sheep, goats) and wild animals

Animals eat spores with food
______results from tissue destruction (anthrax)
bloody black fluid
Inhalation/pulmonary anthrax leads to ______ with ____
blood infection

hemorrhaging

- initial symptoms similar to common cold, usually fatal
GI anthrax results in _____ (symptoms)
violent dysentery, (bloody diarrhea) 25-60% fatal
What are the symptoms of cutaneous anthrax?
black-crusted lesions, death is rare unless infection gets to blood
What is the causing agent of Tetanus, one of the most dangerous of human diseases?
Clostridium tetani
Where is Clostridium tetani found?
found in intestines of many animals

-feces exreted to soil
-soil introduced to wound
-anaerobic environment spurs vegetative growth
What are some sources of introducing clostridium tetani into the body?
animal bites, rusty nails, broken glass, body piercing
What toxin is produced from Clostridium tetani?
tetanospasmin
What does tetanospasmin do?
inhibits relaxation pathway following muscle contraction

bacteria not invasive, toxin spreads throughout the body
Tetanus has several symptoms including rapid devloping muscle stiffness and reduced ventilation. Name three specific symptoms.
Trismus
Risus sardonicus
Opisthotonus
What is characteristic of Trismus?
lockjaw, clenched teeth, jaw muscle spasms
What is characteristic of risus sardonicus?
grinning caused by facial muscle spasms
What is characteristic of opisthotonus?
arching of back
What is used to treat tetanus?
sedatives, dark quiet rooms, antitoxin & antibiotics
What is used as a vaccination for tetanus?
DTaP immunization- tetanospasmin toxoid, requires boosters
What is Gas Gangrene also known as?
clostridial myonecrosis
What is the causative agent of gas gangrene?
Clostridium perfringens
What are the symptoms of gas gangrene?
pain from infected wound, increased swelling, foul odor and frothy fluid from bacterial invasion of dead, anaerobic tissue
Clostridium perfringens, causative agent of gas gangrene, secretes the enzyme ____
lecithinase
What does lecithinase do?
dissolves cell membrane and relases toxic cellular enzymes
Besides dissolving cell membrane and releasing toxic cellular enzymes, lecithinase secretes _____ and ____
hyaluronidase and hemolysin
What is used to treat gas gangrene?
antibiotics and sometimes amuptation

also DEBRIDEMENT- excision. don't take off whole arm or leg, just part
What is the mechanism behind arthropodborne bacterial diseases?
- arthropods eat blood of infected animal

- arthropods become infected

- bite or defecate into another host and transmit infectious agent
What are four of the most common arthropod vectors?
fleas, lice, ticks, mosquitoes
What is the causing agent of bubonic plague?
Yersinia pestis
Is yersinia pestis gram + or -?
Gram -
What does Yersinia pestis look like?
Bipolar staining makes it look like a safety pin
What are the vectors (things that carry Yersinia pestis) of Bubonic Plague?
- Xenopsylla cheopsis- rat fleas
When host rats die, fleas go to humans

- ground squirrels, prairie dogs, other wild rodents
cause sylvatic plague
What are rat fleas called?
Xenopsylla cheopsis
What do Ground squirrels, prairie dogs, other wild rodents cause?
Sylvatic plague
Besides Xenopsylla cheopsis, ground squirrels, prairie dogs, and other wild rodents, how else is yersinia pestis transmitted?
airborne droplets between humans

- results in pneumonic plague
- death in 2 days (100% mortality)
When Yersinia pestis is transmitted by airborne droplets between humans, what plague results?
pneumonic plague
Blood disease is a symptom of the bubonic plauge. Bacteria multiply in blood stream and localize in lymph nodes. What are three main symptoms?
1) Buboes
2) Rosies
3) Septicemic plague
What is characteristic of buboes?
hemorrhaging & swelling in lymph nodes
What is characteristic of rosies?
hemorrhaging on skin resulting in dark purplish spots
What is characteristic of septicemic plague?
bacilli overwhelm circulatory system (50% mortality)
What is used to treat bubonic plague?
antibiotics (erythromycin, streptomycin) when detected early
What vaccine is used to prevent bubonic plague?
dead Yersinia pestis for folk in high-risk professions (forest rangers, health-care workers)
What is the causative agent of Lyme Disease?
Borrelia burgdorferi
What kind of bacteria is Borrelia burgdorferi?
G-, microaerophilic spirochete
How could you prevent Borrelia burgdorferi from infecting you?
Protective clothing
remove ticks
antiseptic
What vaccine is used to prevent lyme disease?
Made from OspA liproprotein from outher surface of Borelia burgdorferi

- 3 injections for immunity

*OspA liproprotein
What is the vector for transmitting lyme Disease?
ticks
Name two kinds of ticks
Ixodes scapularis
- deer tick found in NE and MW

Ixodes pacificus
- woodrat tick found in W
How is Lyme Disease transmitted?
- animal host leaves tick on tall grass.
- human host picks up tick walking through grass
- tick penetrates skin
- during the next day or two, tick eats blood meal and defecates into wound depositing spirochetes
There are three stages to Lyme Disease. What are they?
Early localized
Early disseminated
Late chronic
What happens in the early localized stage?
Erythema chronicum migrans (ECM)- does not itch, flu-like symptoms
What happens in the early disseminated stage?
joint pain-arthritis, damage may be irreversible
What happens in the late chronic stage?
Headaches, loss of muscle tone, hearing/vision abnormalities, damage to cardiovascular, nervous systems

mortality rate not high
How is Lyme Disease treated?
penicillin or tetracycline at early localized stage
Who discovered that ticks transmitted Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) and was a victim of Mexican typhus?
Howard Taylor Ricketts
What is the causing agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
Rickettsia rickettsii
What are two types of ticks that are vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
Dermacentor
Amblyomma
What test is used to diagnose for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
Weil-Felix test- agglutination test
In the Weil-Felix test- agglutination test, serum is mixed with ____
Proteus OX19
In the Weil-Felix test, what will cause agglutination?
Serum Abs and O polysaccharide on Proteus OX19
Proteus and Rickettsiae have the same ____
O polysaccharide
Describe the WEil-Felix test
- mix serum with Proteus OX19
- Serum Abs and O polysaccharide on Proteus will cause agglutination
- Proteus and Rickettsiae have same O polysaccharide
What are the classic symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
high fever, spotted rash
Rocky Mountain SPotted Fever has symptoms such as high fever and spotted rash. It starts as _____(pink spots), progresses to ______(pimples, reflecting small blood vessel damage), and then to _______ from extremities to trunk
Macules
papules
maculopapular rash
pink spots
macules
pimples, reflecting small blood vessel damage
papules
rash from extremities to trunk
maculopapular rash
What is used to treat Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever?
tetracycline, chloramphenicol

- High mortality- 75% if not diagnosed early

* chloramphenicol
What is the agent of typhus?
Rickettsiae prowazekkii
What is the vector of rickettsiae prowazekii?
Pediculus, head and body lice
What are the symptoms of Rickettsiae prowazekii?
maculopapular rash (extremities to trunk)

104oF fever causes hallucinations/delirium
How do you treat typhus?
tetracycline
chloramphenicol
How do you prevent Rickettsiae prowazekii?
good hygiene
How do you diagnose for Rickettsiae prowazekii?
Weil-Felix test

-uses non disease causing protease as indicator
How is rickettsiae prowazekii transmitted?
PEDICULUS lice gets on head or body. It doesn't actively cause disease. Person gets itchy with lice on himself. Person will scratch in feces of lice. Feces will contain Rickettsiae prowazekii