Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
timing of classical conditioning
CS must come before US.
Backward conditioning is rarely effective, suggesting contingency, not contiguity, is most important
premise of classical conditioning
PAIRING...we learn new responses when things are connected or paired. When a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus, eventually, the CS produces a conditioned response similar to the unconditioned stimulus (e.g. salivation). The CR is typically not as strong as the UR.
three theories of acquiring new behaviors and responses
classical conditioning
operant conditioning
social learning theory
Premise of operant conditioning
learning is based on rewards and punishment
Premise of social theory
learning is based on observation and imitation
Alternative names for Classical conditioning
-stimulus-response conditioning
Pioneers of Classical conditioning
Pavlov and Watson
Focus of Classical conditioning
automatic, involuntary response that are not deliberate and do not require effort
Pavlov's Unconditioned Reflexes
stimulus-response links when no learning has yet taken place and the link between stimulus and response is inborn and automatic.
lights off ->pupil dilation
US -> UR
Loud noise ->startle response
US -> UR
Pavlov's Conditioned Reflex
results from experience and learning. Generally varies significantly among members of species. CS -> CR
Differences between Unconditioned and Conditioned stimulus
Is it involuntary?
Universal among species?
involuntary and universal = unconditioned.
voluntary and not universal = conditioned (e.g. fishnet stockings; feeling perked up by the first sip of coffee, feeling nausea at the first bite of food that had previously made one sick)
how classical conditioning occurs
neutral stimulus repeatedly paired with unconditioned stimulus. Through repeated pairing, the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a similar response as the unconditioned stimulus, although typically to a lesser degree.
Methods of classical conditioning
-standard pairing (trace conditioning)
-delay conditioning
-temporal conditioning
-simultaneous conditioning
-backward conditioning
delayed conditioning
the most effective means of conditioning. The CS is presented before the US and continues through completion of the US.
trace conditioning
the CS is a discrete stimulus that is presented and terminated before the US is presented. Can be effective if the interstimulus interval is very brief - optimally 1/2 to 1 second.(e.g. noise of a gun being fired.)
simultaneous conditioning
the neutral stimulus and uncondtioned stimlus completely overlap.
Behavioral Therapies based upon Classical Conditioning
-aversion therapy
-systematic desensitization
-implosive therapy
Implosive Therapy
an imaginal technique that promotes exposure to the original traumatic event using memory reactivation. Exposure therapy using systematic imagining or recall of the incident that led to trauma. The aim is to eliminate the fear response through repeated exposure.

AKA: imaginal flooding
Flooding (Implosion)
behavior therapy procedure for phobias & other problems involving maladaptive anxiety, in which anxiety producers are presented in intense forms, either in imagination or in real life. Therapy continued until stimuli no longer produce disabling anxiety.
systematic desensitization
treatment mainly used for phobia and specific anxieties. SD involves understanding what provokes least and most anxiety, learning relaxation techniques, then associating relaxation with he least provoking stimuli.
Aversion Therapy
Designed to eliminate an 'undesirable' behaviour by associating an aversive stimulus with it.
difference between implosive therapy and imaginal flooding.
Implosive therapy is distinguished from imaginal flooding by virtue of its use of cognitive variables that are correlated with the development of PTSD (e.g., hopelessness, loss of control, etc.). These variables can be central to the development and maintenance of traumatic symptomatology and thus crucial to introduce in the exposure therapy to evoke the affective response and initiate emotional processing of the event.
Backward Conditioning
the US comes after the NS. No learning or conditioning occurs
Temporal Conditioning
when the US is presented repeatedly at a consistent time interval. Eventually time begins to act as the CS. e.g. feeding zoo animals on a schedule, eliciting anticipatory behavior at a specific time.
stimulus generalization
AKA: Mediated Generalization.the subject automatically generalizes from a CS to other similar neutral stimuli. Occcurs automatically and without deliberate attempt. e.g. white mice -> furry animals
higher order conditioning
AKA second-order conditioning. A CS is paired with a NS until the NS becomes conditioned to elicit the conditioned response. Third order conditioning is similarly possible but it is impossible to condition beyond the third level
Difference between stimulus generalization and higher order conditioning.
Stimulus generalization is automatic; higher order conditioning is deliberate.
classical extinction
results from repeated presentation of the CS without the US. Note that repeated presentation of the US will not result in extinction because the CS never loses its signaling value.
spontaneous recovery
during extinction trials, following a rest period, the CR to the CS often briefly reappears. The CR will once again vanish if extinction trials continue. A process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus.
pavlov's belief that any neutral stimulus could become conditioned
The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli.
stimulus generalization
Occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response.
conditioning occurs accidentally when a neutral stimulus that was not deliberately paired with either the US or the CS comes to elicit the CR
the subject becomes accustomed to and less responsive to an US after repeated exposure. e.g. livied beneath an el train. Always involves the US never the CS