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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Perceptual learning
Learning to recognize a particular stimulus. The primary function is the ability to identify and categorize objects and situations.
The process by which experiences change our nervous system and hence our behavior. We refer to these changes as memories. The experiences change the way we perceive, perform, think, and plan.
Learning can take at least four basic forms:
perceptual learning, stimulus-reponse learning, motor learning, and relational learning
Stimulus-response learning
Is the ability to learn to perfrom a particular behavior when a particular stimulus is present. Learning to automatically make a particular response in the presence of a particular stimulus; inlcudes classical and instrumental conditioning. Connections between perceptual and motor systems
Classical conditioning
(association between two stimuli)
A learning procedure; when a stimulus that initially produces no particular response is followed several times by an unconditional stimulus that produces a defensive or appetitive response (the unconditional response), the first stimulus (now called the conditional stimulus) itself evokes the response (now called the conditional response).
An example of classical conditioning: If we direct a brief puff of air toward a rabbit's eye, the eye will automatically blink
The response is called an unconditional response because it occurs unconditionally, without any special training. The stimulus that produces it (the puff of air) is called an unconditional stimulus. We present a series of brief 1000HZ tones, each followed by a puff of air. After several trials the rabbit's eye begins to close even before the puff of air occurs. The conditional stimulus(1000HZ tone) now elicits the conditional response (The eye blink).
Hebb rule
Says that if a synapse repeatedly becomes active at about the same time that the postsynaptic neuron fires, changes will take place in the structure or chemistry of the synapse that will strengthen it. The act of firing then strengthen any synpase with the motor neuron that has just been active.
Instrumental conditioning
(association between a response and a stimulus)
A learning procedure whereby the effects of particular behavior in a particular situation increase (reinforce) or decrease (punish)the probability of the behavior; also call operant conditioning.
Reinforcing stimuli
An appetitive stimulus that follows a particular behavior and thus makes the behavior become more frequent.
Punishing stimulus
An aversive stimulus that follows a particular behavior and thus makes the behavior less frequent.
Motor Learning
Learning to make a new response. It primarily involves changes within neural circuits that control movement, is guided by sensory stimuli; thus, it is actually a form of stimulus-response learning.
Relational learning
A complex form of learning that involves the relations among individual stimuli; includes spatial learning, episodic learning, and observational learning.
Episodic learning
Remembering sequences of events
Observational learning
Learning by watching and imitating other people
Long-term potentiation
A long-term increase in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by repeated high frequency activity of that input.
Hippocampal formation
A forebrain structure of the temporal lobe, constituting an important part of the limbic system.
Long-term depression
A long-term decrease in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input caused by stimulation of the terminal button while the postsynaptic membrane is hyperpolarized or only slightly depolarized.
When good things happen, reinforcement mechanisms in the brain become active, and the establishment of synaptic changes is facilitated. Electrical stimulation of many parts of the brain is reinforcing.
Medial forebrain bundle
Passes through lateral hypothalamus. Electrical stimulation of these axons is reinforcing.
Ventral tegmental area
dopaminergic neurons(pleasure) plays a critical role in reinforcement.
Nucleus accumbens
Involved in reinforcement and attention
Anterograde amnesia
Refers to difficuluty in learning new information. A person with pure anterograde amnesia can remember events that occured in the past, during the time before the brain damage occurred, but cannot retain information he or she encounters after the damage.
Retrograde amnesia
Refers to the inability to remember events that happened before the brain damage occurred. (ECT)
Korakoff's syndrome
Permanent anterograde amnesia caused by brain damage resulting from chronic alcoholism or malnutrition. Vitamin B deficiency, loss of myelin
Short-term memory
Immediate memory for events, which may or may not be consolidated into long-term memory. (20 minute segment)
Long-term memory
Relatively stable memory of events that occurred in the more distant past, as opposed to short-term memory.
What is the hippocampus' job related to memory?
The hippocampus is not the location of long-term memories; nor is it necessary for the retrieval of long-term memories. THe hippocampus is not the location of immediate short term memory. The hippocampus is involved in convertng immediate (short-term) memories into long-term memories.
The process by which short-term memories are converted into long-term memories.
Declarative memory
Memory that can be verbally expressed, such as memory for events in a person's past.
Nondeclarative memory
Memory whose formation does not depend on the hippocampal formation; a collective term for perceptual, stimulus-reponse, and motor memory. Operate automatically, they do not require deliberate attempts on the part of the learner to memorize something.
Episodic memory
Collection of perceptions of events organized in time and identifiedby a particular context.
Perirhinal cortex and parahippocampal cortex
Temporal lobes, receive information from the amydala, which may be responsible for the role that emotions play in memories.
Place cell
A neuron that becomes active when the animal is in a particular location in the environment; most typically found in the hippocampal formation.