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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the type of human interaction
Industrial Revolution
the drastic economic change brought about by the introduction of machines into the work process about 200 years ago
postindustrial revolution
the change of an economy into one dominated by high technology
cottage industry
craft workers still worked seperately in their own homes
factory system
method of manufacturing adopted in England at the beginning at the Industrial Revolution, in which each worker completes a separate part of the total assembly of a product.
Where and when the Industrial Revolution began
England in 1760
4 consequences of industrialization
1. it changes the nature of work- fewer people, bigger machines, more white collar less blue
2. brings about demographic changes- cities grow, whole population grows
3. changes human relations
4. changes the values of a society- more dynamism and materialism, less traditional
an economic system based on private ownership of property and competition in producing and selling goods and services
functionalist take on capitalism
capitalism brings about a prosperous and stable social order
conflict take on capitalism
capitalism threatens society by allowing a powerful wealthy class to exploit a weak lower class
symbolic interactionist take on capitalism
focus on how people's definition of their world creates or supports capitalism
Adam Smith
an economist whose thoery of capitalism has become part of economic sociology (functionalist ideas traced back to Smith)
Two characteristics of capitalism that allow it to allow us to pursuit self-interest and flourish
1. private ownership of property
2. free competition in buysing and selling goods and services
the "invisible hand"
coined by Adam Smith, brings profits to the efficient producers and puts the inefficient ones out of business; competition
alienation of labor
laborers' loss of control over their work process when specialization occurs; Marx
a classless society tat operates on the principle of "from each according to his own"
an economic system based on public ownership and government control of the economy
the situation in which one firm conrols the output of an industry
the situation in which a very few companies control the output of an industry
own shares in the firm and its profits. They don't communicate with each other, let alone organize to control the corporation, but they do exercise the right to vote to elect a board of directors to run the corporation
two welfare systems in the US (and which is more generous)
1. the more well-known welfare program for the poor
2. the welfare system through the rich through special tax breaks called tax credits or deductions
Four corrupt practices that have been liberated by the government's hands-off policy
1. moving the coporate headquarters to foreign places without their employees to avoid paying US taxes
2. overpaying executives and granting them huge stock options and interest-free loans
3. stacking the board of directors with insiders and friends
4. giving campaign contributions to candidates from both major parties to ensure a receipt of government subsidies, tax breaks, and other favors
a corporation that owns companies in various unrelated industries (eg hotels, insurance companies, and bakeries)
multinational corporation
companies with subsidiaries in other countries; often have more economic power than medium-sized countries; many have outsourced to seek cheap labor; spark social conflict but introduce technology and badly needed jobs
dual economy
an economy that comprises a core of giant corporations dominating the market and a periphery of small firms competing for the remaining, smaller shares of business
Three sectors of an economy
1. core of giant corporations
2. periphery of small firms competing for leftover business
3. various government agencies
Breakdown of % of workers in each of the 3 sectors
1. 30% in government sector
2. 30-40% in private core
3. Most in peripheral sector
the ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will
illegitimate power
control that is exercised over people who do not recognize the right of those exercising the power to do so
legitimate power
control that is exercised over people with their consent; they believe those exercising control have a right to do so
Two kinds of legitimate power
1. influence
2. authority
the ability to control others' behavior through persuasion rather than coercion or authority (may acquire influence through wealth, fame, charm, knowledge, persuasiveness, or any other admired quality)
Described three possible sources of the right to command
Max Weber
Three possible sources of the right t ocommand
1. traditional authority
2. charismatic authority
3. legal authority
traditional authority
people obey those in power because, in essence, that is the way it has always been (kings, queens, tribal chiefs, etc) (often justified by religious tradition)
charismatic authority
people submit to authority because of the extraordinary attraction of an individual
followers' personal devotion to a leader is replaced by formal commitment to a political system
legal authority
Weber also called it rational authority; systems that are based on it derive legitimacy from an explicit set of rules and procedures that spell out a ruler's rights and duties, and people grant their obedience to the law (individuals come and go, but the office remains)
three branches of US government
1. the executive (including the President)
2. the legislative (Congress)
3. the judiciary (the Supreme Court)
political socialization
a learning process by which individuals acquire political knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes
ideological conservatives
are opposed to big government because of their belief in free enterprise, rugged individualism, and capitalism
operational liberals
support big government by backing government programs that render services to the public
political party
a group organized for the purpose of gaining government offices
three functions of political parties
1. parties recruit adherents, nominate candidates, raise campaign money to support their candidate
2. parties formulate and promote policies
3. parties help organize the main institutions of government
interest group
an organized collection of people who attempt to influence government policies
political power
the capacity to use the government to make decisions that affect the whole society
pluralist view on who holds political power
sees many centers of power as well as many competing interest groups; government relfects the outcome of their conflict; no one group can always reign
Robert Dahl
pluralist that said inequalities are dispersed; what one group may lack in wealth it makes up in knowledge and legitimacy, and vice-versa for another group
David Riesman and Arnold Rose
pluralists who said that the US has become so pluralistic that powerful interest groups cancel each other out to become veto groups and end up having to go to the unorganized masses for support; thus the masses have the ultimate power to ensure their concerns are protected
elitist view on political power
top leaders in business, gov, and the miltary hold political power, which comes from key positions in those fields. the masses are exploited or manipulated by the power elite
C. Wright Mills and what he thought about political power
follows the elitist view; said there are three levels of power in the country: 1. the ordinary 2. congress, political parties, and interest groups 3. the power elite of the fed gov, the military and the large corporations who make all the real, important decisions
iron law of oligarchy
even a democracy inevitably degenerates into an oligarchy- rule by a few (elitist)
Marxist view on political power
capitalists and top leaders of the corporate world hold power, which comes from control of the nation's economy, and the masses are exloited or manipulated by the capitalists
Albert Szymanski
Marxist sociologist who theorized four classes in US:
1. capitalist class
2. petit bourgeoisie (professionals, small business people)
3. working class
4. lumpenproletariat (unemployed, down and outs, and criminals)