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49 Cards in this Set

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Classical Conditioning
Subject learns to give a response it already knows to a new stimulus
Stimulus
A change in the environment that elicits a response
Response
Reaction to a stimulus
Neutral Stimulus
Does not elicit a response
Unconditional Stimulus
Automatically brings unconditional response; UCS/US and UCR/UR
Conditioned Stimulus
Is a neutral stimulus, but when paired with UCs, it elicits a conditional response; CS and NS
Acquisition
Acquiring to a response
Delayed conditioning
Occurs when the NS is presented just before the UCS with a brief overlap between the two
Trace Conditioning
Occurs when the NS is presented and then disappears before the UCS appears
Simultaneous Conditioning
Occurs when the UCS and NS are paired together at the same time
Backward Conditioning
USC comes before the NS
Aversive Conditioning
Involving an unpleasant or harmful unconditioned stimulus or reinforcer
Extinction
Weakening of the conditional association
Spontaneous Recovery
Behavior will appear later without re-pairing of the UCS and CS
Generalization
When stimuli similar to the CS also elicits the CR without any training
Discrimination
Occurs when only the CS produces the CR
Higher-order conditioning
Occurs when well learned CS is paired with an Ns to produce a CR to the NS
Operant Conditioning
Active subject voluntarily emits behaviors and can learn new ones
Instrumental Learning
A form of associative learning in which a behavior becomes more or less probable depending on its consequences
Law of Effect
States that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened.
Positive Reinforcement
Reward training
Premack Principle
A more probable behavior can be used as a reinforcer for a less probable one
Negative Reinforcement
Taking away unpleasant consequence after behavior is done
Punishment Training
Learner’s response is followed by an aversive consequence
Omission Training
A response by the learner is followed by taking away something of value from the learner
Aversive Conditioning
Use of negative reinforcement and punishment
Avoidance
Taking away the aversive stimulus before it begins
Escape
Taking away the aversive stimulus after it has started
Learned Helplessness
Feeling of futility and passive resignation that results from the inability to avoid repeated aversive events
Primary Reinforcer
Biologically important and rewarding
Secondary Reinforcer
Something neutral that when associated with a primary reinforcer becomes rewarding
Generalized reinforcer
A secondary reinforcer that can be associated wit a number of different primary reinforcers
Token Economy
Operant training system
Shaping
Positivly reinforcing closer and closer the approximation of the desired behavior
Continuous Reinforcement
Schedule that provides reinforcement every time the behavior is emitted by the organism
Partial Reinforcement
AKA intermittent schedule; maintains behavior better than continuous reinforcement
Fixed Ratio
Know how much behavior for reinforcement
Fixed interval
Know when behavior is reinforced
Variable Ratio
How much behavior for reinforcement changes
Variable Interval
When behavior is reinforced to change
Conditioned Taste Aversion
Intense dislike/avoidance of a food because of its association with an unpleasant stimulus
Preparedness
By evolution, Animals are biologically predisposed to easily learn behaviors related to their survival
Instinctive Drift
Conditioned response that drifts back toward the natural behavior of the organism
Contiguity Model
Believed that the close time was important for making connection
Contingency Model
CS tells the organism that the US will follow
Blocking Effect
Cannot produce Cr with only 1 of 2 NS/CS
Latent Learning
Learning in absence of rewards
Insight
Sudden appearance of an answer/solution
Observational Learning
Learning occurs by watching the behavior