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219 Cards in this Set

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Amer Indians; original name of Latin America

Natives of Latin America; the Indies
People of European ancestry born in the colonies.
Term "Latin American"
appeared in the 1860-1870's. Refers to people who speak romance languages. Stresses the European element.
Highlands: 1/3 major geographical areas

Western Side running from Alaska to Tierro de Fuego. (Mountain Ranges). Mountain ranges make the climate more temperate than it would be in other geographic locations. The Indigineous populations were concentrated here. AKA - IndoAmerica, MestizoAmerica. Very productive yet as a result unequal colonial power structures were put into place. Much violence, repression, and inequality. The wealth went to very few people and was often detrimental to the indigenous population.
Highest Mountain in Western Hemisphere.
Highest Navigable Lake.
Pre-Colombian [] of indigineous people

1) Meso-America (Mexico->Nicaragua), 2) Andean Plateau. This was where Europeans settled because of indigineous labor and silver.
Precious Metals

Easy to transport, a lot of bang for the weight. allowed for American capitalism. Made for some of the richest colonies in the world.

Richest silver mines in the world.
Tropical Lowlands: 1/3 major geographical areas

The Amazon - was slightly populated before arrival of Europeans. Very fertile yet extremely difficult to farm on. Most population in Coastal lands/islands. Indigineous population here was wiped out when settlers came. The labor instead came from Africa. AKA - Afro-Latin America. Northeastern Brazil - 40% of slaves in slave trade came here. The populations are mainly Mestizo except for the coast. Very productive yet as a result unequal colonial power structures were put into place. Much violence, repression, and inequality. The wealth went to very few people and was often detrimental to the indigenous population.
Plantation Economy
Sugar, indigo, tobacco, cotton(later). Export to Europe. Mainly labor = slaves.
Temperate Latin America: 1/3 of geographical areas.

In Southern South America. Incorporates the pampas, opposite of shallow topsoil Amazon. (compare to great plains, Ukraine bread basket).
grasslands in Southern South America. Like the great plains - in temperate Latin America. Massive amounts of topsoil.
Semi-desertic temperate land, plateau, lightly populated. Raised sheep. Didn't have mineral wealth. The climate limited the growing of tropical cash crops. Thus no slave economy. At the time they could only grow European crops (wheat, cereals) that there was not a demand for in Europe. Was the poorest region for a while until things changed in the 1800s. In the southern half of Argentina Mainly. The lack of colonial development meant that there were no power structures or methods of exploiting people. Unlike the rich places this was poor, underdeveloped uet also not mis-developed or exploited as elsewhere with mineral wealth/slave economies.
One of the richest places in the world with its slave economy yet the wealth here was distributed quite unevenly. 95% of the population was slaves at one point which meant there was a lot of racial/class tension/fear.
Caste Societies
Place in society based on inherited privelage. Became Class Societies
Class Societies
More mobility than in Caste Society, basically equivalent to a modern democratic capitalist society.
Reversal of wealth of Colonies
During the 1800s the rich colonies became poor and the poor became rich.
Pop. of LA pre-Columbus

100 Million (High Estimate)
Spanish Empire
Conquest of the Americas gave Spain the first true overseas Empire stretching from Oregon to Tierra Del Fuego. During 1600s Spanish and Portuguese crown were united.
Pop. of Mexico pre-Spanish
25-30 Million, in 1600 2 million (much wiping out of pop.)
Birthdate of Globalization. Much Regional integration before.
Demographic Catastrophe: Effects of Colonialism

In the Atlantic Islands the native population was wiped out. The population was condensed so it was easy for this wiping out to occur. Took a long time for the pop. to recoup. Blamed on the cruelty of the Spanish conquerers - yet the Spanish had no need to kill those they wanted to exploit for labor purposes. Even had they wanted to it would have been time-consuming. Death due to disease (smallpox influenza).
Ecological Impact: Effects of Colonialism

1) Transformed the flora/fauna of the "New World." by 1900 major producers of "old world" cereals were in Argentina, America, Canada. (ie fruits, sugar cane (from Africa), wheat, domestic animals).
2) Led to social changes. Sugar plantations and introduction of sugar cane made possible plantation economy and life. Expansive rather than intensive agriculture.
People owning huge land tracts having many landless peasants working on them - also called Haciendas.
-Introduced deep rural inequalities between hacienda owners and peasant workers.
Extensive Farming
Farming characterized by few inputs on vast land tracts. Introduction of domestic animals made it possible to do. Introduction of horses and cows made ranching a possible lifestyle.
Equestrian Cultures
not possible without the introduction of horses. Apache (central plain indians) and Araucanians were horse societies. Ironically a European import that allowed them to live independently of Europeans.
Urban Centers

Organized on European templates. like Roman societies. Surpluses allowed for the development of these centers.
Partial Destruction of Indigineous Culture: Product of Colonialism
Indian government (Aztecs, Incas) was destroyed. Their formal religion was prohibited. their educational system was destroyed. Folk culture persisted, as did languages spoken, dress, religious beliefs, eating habits. Hid their religiong by giving their deities European sounding names. Spread of European norms that were associated with power, getting rid of old norms. Spanish language SLOWLY gained ground. Christianity was imposed on the people. Cultural penetration effected almost everyone.
System in which whiteness determined how much power an individual held. whiter people = in greater positions of power.

Made up the white ruling class. people born in the Iberian Peninsula. Controlled international trade. Control over mining industry.

They were a privelaged group at first because of ties to Europe. They became prominent in professional occupations (law), they were landowners (through inheriting land), and had accumulated privelage.
Tribute Tax

The indigineous population were forced to pay this tax to their colonizers.
Indigineous Population: Social Movement

Had some limited social mobility. Some contact with their European conquerers.
people of mixed European/indigineous (Amerindian) blood.
Racial Categories

were not as rigid as they are today. Were based not only on skin color but also on literacy, wealth. Europeans were still figuring out how to classify people. Also used religion to do this.
Limpieza de Sangre
Purity of Blood.
Restrictions on Indigineous population.

Restricted from owning arms, using an umbrella (?), living in certain areas, essentially a system of apartheid or total seperation.
In some ways seemed to exist more in theory than in practice. Culturally and Racially some definite perceptible mixing.
Spanish Goals of Imperial System

1) Export riches (mainly mineral/metallic) to the world
2) Prevent the conquerers and descendents from becoming too independent from the mother country. Didn't want them to question the soveirgnty of the motherland. Not a strict system of colonial control though.
Hapsburg Spain (1517-1700)
Concept of government was somewhat medeival. Saw the colonies as kingdoms. Patriarchal, benevolent king. Symbiotic relationship (or at least ideal). King provided protection and the colonies their loyalty as well as wealth. Limited communication, transportation, king also had other empires to take care of. Revolts in other areas that took king's attention away from LA. A system of "benign neglect" began to occur on the part of the Spaniards.
Effect of Declining exports from Colonies
Silver export began to decline. Less flow of wealth from colonies = less wealth for kingdom = less power. Political positions were sold off to the highest bidder because the kingdom was no longer willing to pay for colonial officials - system led to governmental corruption and local disempowerment - forced loans with Indians. Reflected the fact that the colonies were keeping more of their wealth. Self-Sufficiency in terms of food, goods produced (consumer goods). Much contraband trade.
Decline in Silver export

Not an indication in decline in production but rather that the colonies were using it for intercolonial trade. By the end of the 1500s only 1/5 of peruvian silber was being exported.
New Imperialism/New Conquest
independence in LA resembles independence in US. The mother country tried to re-gain lost power/control over the colonies and the colonies responded with great resistance. Had inverse effects.
Bourbon Reforms
2nd 1/2 of 1700s. During the reign of Charles III, enlightened despot, reforms were meant to rationalize and modernize the beauracracy and to increase revenue to the motherland - ie increase political and economic control of Spain over the colonies. There had been a pact between rulers and colonies before. These reforms suggested a new absolutism, king more of a ruler than a paternal figure.
-Increased power through increased trade with the motherland, increased output.
-disrupted the balance between impwerial soveirgnty and colonial autonomy.
-Those advantaged by the reforms were also those who revolted.
Colonies were supposed to provide raw materials and markets for industrial products. Make the empire as a whole self-sufficient but the colonies über dependant.
New political units. Previously had been two (New Spain [Mexico, etc] and Peru [all of Spanish SA]). In 1700s two new ones created (New Granada, Riverplate [rio de la plata]). New offices created new sub-regional entities. Reflected the crown's attempt at creating smaller, more manageable units of government that would be more efficient, easier to defend militarily. Trying to centralize royal control by centralizing the administration. New administrators reported to the king of Spain. Increased efficiency yet also increased a sense of self-importance.
The Ordinance of Intendants (1780s)
2nd set of reforms after the Bourbon reforms.
-governing official who represented the royal authority. proved to be enlightened, loyal administrators. success made them unpopular with local populations.
Creole people had always been underrepresented in high-ranking positions in gov as well as in church leadership. Crown made efforts to expel creoles from the positions that they were able to get. Thought the creoles had the interests of the colonies in mind first and foremost.
-the intendants were good @ restraining the abuses of the local elites on the natives. Yet the creoles were mad because these abuses reinforced their positions of power.
-lowered the amount of smuggling. Smuggling provided people with cheaper, better goods. People bitter they could not keep doing this.
-Spanish only 1% of pop. thus 99% of peeps excluded from the gov.
Town council based on the roman system. Bourbon's attempted to revive this system. The people in them were elected by the creoles, thus mainly composed of creoles. They lacked real power. The intendants liked them because they put up a facade of power yet did not threaten the power structure.
-served during time of rev as site for rebellious meetings against royalists.
-in reviving them the goal of improving local resistance to military enemies.
Owners of means of production
Mainly landowners, mine owners, were not in control of the governemnt. Instead a small minority was in control and the revolution served to correct this.
Defense of Colonies
Traditionally based on naval power - large fleeets carrying precious metals accompanied by warships. During 1700s the English menace increased exponentially (1701-1714 Queen Anne's War and War of Spanish Succession). British took land from Spain and plundered and burned st. Augustine. Mid-1700s English captured Porto Bello.
Fortification of Colonies
during 1600s spanish focus on fortifying colonies, rely on local militias as well as increased army. These local militias were quite effective yet later backfired during revolution.
The Decree of Free Trade (1778)
Before this decree transatlantic trade was restricted to two routes. Because of increased
-Misnomer, increased number of ports in Spain and the Americas. The decree proved too free for some people and for others (producers of raw materials) the trade was not free enough. They wanted to sell their products directly to industrialized nations. To these people Spain had become an expensive middleman.
-consumers found free trade too constrictive.
-were allowed to trade with neutral nations only-Spain took this privelage away though.
firepower, fewer ships had to accompany silver fleets going to Spain.
Church Power/Jesuit Expulsion (1767)
Aim to increase secular power (of the crown) at the expense of the Catholic church. Jesuits were kicked out of LA, were too powerful and had direct allegiance to the pope. Saw themselves as a sort of military group defending the church. The intendants did not like their loyalty to the pope.
-When expelled, their land was sold to others, Alienated creole families whose sons were exiled or who had been educated by jesuits. Happened to be the only religious order in which the creoles dominated - creoles saw this in part as a conspiracy to reduce their power. Riots broke out in Mexico city as a response to the Expulsion. The jesuit exiles in Europe became some of the earliest spokespeople in Europe - provided an important source of intellectual validity to the independence movement.
-Interesting because Spain apparently in the colonies under the guise of spreading religion yet at the same time they were kicking out a religious group.
-the idea was to make society more efficient, to improve education and rational governanace.
Aristotilean logic, metaphysical reasoning. The Bourbons attempted to replace this ideology with more scientific inquiry, more radical authors. books challenged the rule of those in power, loved to portray Spanish as anti-science, anti-enlightenment (Adam Smith). These books found in the personal libraries of the leaders of the independence movements.
A cultural conservatism, opposition to change. Ideas of enlightenment weaken this ideology.
Enlightenment Effects
books are inspirational - more scientific, more progressive. weaken ideas of soveirgnty and strengthen those of popular soveirgnty - nationalism.
Independence requires a sense of nationalism. (mainly creole nationalism though, did not generally extend throughout the population)
strengthened by the introduction of ideas and changes of ideas in the colonies. There was more transportation available facilitated greater migration. People began to come more from northern (Basque) Spain than from Southern. Tension between old and newly arrived people. Newly arrived had the most privelage and accused the Creoles of being clannish - mainly male immigrants and thus increased competition for women.
Creole Image
Lazy, unreliable, mixed racial ancestry.
-this negative image/tension between groups fueled nationalism among creoles as well as a sense of individuality.
American Revolution
Was ideal model particularly because it did not involve a disruption of the status quo. French revolution led to social problems, Haitian revolution terrifying because it involved a complete flipping of the social order.
Napolean Blockade of 1807
Put a blockade on the continent and made it impossible for trade with Britain. Portugal refused to cooperate and Napolean asked Spain for permission to invade Portugal. The Portuguese fled the Napolean army to Brazil where they set up an exile government. Napolean took advantage of the weakness of the Spanish crown.
Charles IV
Complete moron/crazy. After him Ferdinand III, then Napolean's Bro.
Pepe Botella (1808-1813)
Napolean's Brother, Joseph Bonaparte I, created a constitutional crisis in Spain and in the colonies. Spanish colonies claimed loyalty to the monarchs yet who the monarchs were was questionable. During his reign Venezuela first Spanish colony to declare independence (1810).
Pampas/Patagonia conditions
high ratio of natural resources to people, high living standards, relatively egalitarian social structure because no fighting over resources. No rich monetary economy - somewhat insular economically and otherwise.
Northwest region of Argentina.
The colonial society was more similar to Peru. Densely populated, structure of power relations, no mineral wealth itself yet was close to Potosi (Bolivia). Became a satellite economy of upper Argentina.
Latifundia. characteristic of colonial SA, large landed estates owned bf few and worked by many landless laborers. In a way a social system with a distinct hierarchy. The owner was supposed to care for those who worked the land.
Wealth reversal
Towards end of colonial period or 1700s the richest places become the poorest and vice versa as mineral wealth is depleted and livestock the new hot commodity. Was often feral. Salted beef provided to slave plnatations.
Minas Gerais
Part of Brazil, had much gold and gem wealth.
Industrial revolution effect on LA economies
Demand for hides to make factory belts, tallow or beef fat was used for lubricant for machinery
Buenos Aires
Spanish reinforced military batallions in BA because it was an important weigh station or entre pot at the time. Increased competition between England and Spain. 80% of wealth in BA came from other plaves and went through.
-British occupied in
merchant guilds. Exclusive, excluded competition, the members were mainly spanish. The smaller, poorer merchants were stopped from entering trade by these consulados.
Increased Military Spending
The people in the colonies paid a tax for these military imperial wars of the motherland.
British occupation of 1807-1808

The local militias defeated them. The same forces that drove the British out also drove the Spanish out. In some ways beginning of the revolution. The first time a local population got rid of a local official (vice royal), the new leader was elected by a local court - the Linears.

viceroy of Rio de La Plata. French officer, popular with Creoles yet not with the Spanish. Allowed for free trade with the English (1808).

Spanish officials tried to turn clock against creole-French Vice Royalty.
May 1810 Council

News reaches BA that there is no SPanish King, not even a symbolic Spanish Gove. Confusing as to whom to follow. Creoles, who controlled military called for an open council in BA to discuss what to do. Organized so that local residents intimidated and really just for certain creoles and creole elites. Controlled by local intellectuals. Decide they will rule in the name of the king who is in jail and powerless. Did not want to alienate the moderate members of society. The imperial administration had collapsed, the loyalists fled.
1814 Navy Defeat

Argentine forces defeat the Spanish Navy. Spain was never able to reconquer the River Plate. Argentina essentially independent in everything but name.

Argentina sent forces to Peru, Chile to liberate countries yet these places did not want to be liberated. They fought back. San Martin the liberator.
San Martin

prime leader of the struggle for independence against Spain. Tried to liberate Peru and Chile.
July 9, 1816.

Independence day. new republic formed called the united provinces of the south yet at the time there really was no unity in the south.
Once known as Switzerland of SA. reference to sociopolitical aspects. European migration meant that 90% of population were descendants of Europeans. by 1900 2nd most urbanized country in the world. Had livestock. Very educated population.
-politically stable, peaceful. was a model for other LA countries. Yet at end of 18th century very backward, gauchos mainly worked to export salted beef...
British in Montevideo 1809

started the road to independence. They expelled British and as a result felt empowered.
1808 Spanish Gov

Group of Spanish Merchants took control of gov and lyally tried to rule in the name of Ferdinand II. Power continued to shift between different alliances.

Loyal to spain, the argentines who wanted to change Uruguay into a province of Argentina.
Portuguese speakers

wanted to make Uruguay a Portuguese colony.

wanted independence. was a rancher, cattle thief, then became a law officer. led a multi-racial group of cowboys who attempted to turn the war of independence into a social revolution. Confiscated the lands of loyalists and redistributed to his followers. This system proved too radical and terrifying for local elites and upper class who banded together and defeated him and he then went into exile in Portugal and died there. A radical yet ultimately failed revolution.
Brazil v. Argentina

in 1820s struggle between these two powers over who would take over Uruguay. The British convinced them to let Uruguay serve as a buffer state between the two powers.
Was a marginal, poor region, land locked and thus isolated, more so than Uruguay. Had no mineral wealth and no access to the sea. Attracted few European settlers. Had mainly mestizos

Indigineous people of Paraguay

During colonial period they established missions to convert the Guarani (indigineous people) and to protect them. Created the first viable economic activity in these missions ,tobacco with the labor of the Guarani, grew MATE and TEA. Exiled by Spanish in 1767.

Brief affair. 1810 Argentines declared autonomy, sent 700 soldiers to liberate Paraguay. Paraguayans fought their "liberators," defeated them and became liberated from Spanish rule.
Dr. Francia (1811 - 1840)

creole lawyer. ruled as part of council in place of royal ruler and then disbanded council and became eternal leader called El Supremo. Installed a socialist Utopia government. Was a ruthless tyrant, decimated local elite and turned their lands into state enterprises. Tried to make the country into a classess society. Radical way of making an Egalitarian society - arrested all of the spanish merchants and put them in jail for 18 months-made them pay huge bail and got/got rid of their wealth. Attacked church, gov = new religion. Tried to de-europeanize country. high tax on rich, low on poor. prohibited whites from marrying whites.
-adopted policy of isolationism.
-autarky - a totally self-sufficient country.
-not corrupt at all, was interested in power created by the masses not wealth
Chambers of Truth

device of Dr. Francia where arrested people with no trials and totured them. Brutal against enemies.
Didn't have metallic wealth. But had Cacao, their black gold. by 1800 has 1 million inhabitants. Creoles.
-middle class, then craftsmen, then day laborers
Las Casas

noble savage ideal. indigineous people would make perfect Christian converts.
-Made colony of noble savages but turned out to be more savages than noble. Massacred others.

Major export to Europe in 1700s. Cacao plantations sprung up on coast and sugar plantations and then indigo. Economic growth = growth in population.
Grandes Cacaos

group that owned the plantations, under 1000 families.

people from the plains. They were cowboys. The culture is not very controlled socially. Used to a relatively free lifestyle, reputation for lawlessness.
Indigineous people

Majority live in the jungles outside of colonial society.

They had a Univeristy of Caracas, Colegio de Abogados (bar assoc.), consulado (high court). Engineering and Military science school.
-reforms turned Venezuela into an important colony
Caracas company (1720s)

controlled by the state. controlled from spain. gave them monopoly of trade in Venezuela yet they had to provide coast guard protection. Most Venezuelans hated the company and producers claimed that the prices the company paid were too low and the consumers felt they were being charged too much.
1789 Free Trade Agreement

market became more free - now several companies yet all in the hands of Spanish Peninsulars. The consumers were mainly in Northern Europe. Reports to king that if he does not grant Venezuelans free trade that they will revolt. Yet not so free because they cannot gain access to certain markets because of Spain's political situation
Creole-Peninsular animosity

creoles had few posts in gov. greater economic development = greater spanish control.
Crown control - slave

Attempts to regulate master-slave relations. Unpopular. slave owners did not want to give up their power.
-1789 Bourbon decree regulating master-slave relations was revoked because of intense unpopularity.

Free colored population (European/black)
Bourbon policy towards pardos

laws prohibited activities including economic, political, educational, and social integration. Purity of blood needed for privelages.
Gracias al Sacar

last quarter of 1700s. a diploma of whiteness - people of color could petition the crown that they should legally be considered white and thus a privelaged member of society.
-creoles didn't like this because one of the only advantages they had was their comparatively lighter skin.
Inhibition to Independence

Fears of lower class revolt, class warfare, social chaos, whites made up minority of the pop. was already a tense, hyper-exploitative atmosphere.
1795 slave rebellion

Inspired by the Haitian rebellion. the aim was abolition of slavery.

Runaway slaves that have escaped from a plantation. Around 30,000 in Venezuela. Sometimes they organized communities called Quilombros. These were not always peaceful places, sometimes sent people to plunder plantations and steal food, massacre previous masters.

a patriot of American independence. in 1806 came as liberator but rather betrayed to the Spanish government.
1810 emancipation attempt

people got together and formed temporary gov when french took over seville and spanish king was deposed. This temp gov ruled in name of king, next year became independent, write constitution.

Pays close attention to concerns of creoles including free trade, citizen rights to property owners, new republic. Abolishes indian tribute although at the time very few indians actually pay this tax. symbollic gesture. Shows they want freedom and equality yet they do not abolish slavery. They try to strip the llaneros of their power.

Struck Venezuela, those who were religious called it a sign from god. struck the rebel armies most and hardly touched those loyal to spain. Spanish batallions came down and reversed the revolution.
Simon Bolivar

idealized figure, seen as standing next to god yet at the same time a massive slave holder. in 1813 retakes Caracas known as the liberator yet 2nd independence does not last for long. Spanish imperialist then takes Venezuela with support of the lower classes. 1815.

-Tied manumission to conscription in order to get more troops.
Racial Tactics of Spanish

Use of these tactics showed that the spanish could not be trusted to preserve social order by class and race. Creoles became convinced that they should take over.
Venezuelan independence 1821

a lot of violence in Venezuela, degenerated into class/racial war, No other plavce in LA was the war of independence so bloody. Came to form part of Colombia.

heart of the incan empire (romans of the new world). impressive irrigation systems. grew many crops with terracing technology. Bridges. machu Picchu, Cuzco.
-elaborate record keeping, very controlled social system. production was regulated based on need. Language = Quechua. cultural pluralism, economic security of pop. Form of indigiineous socialism.
jewel in crown

1500/1600s had tremendous wealth in places like Potosi (silver). food came from satelite economies around the town. Many died in mines and by 1700s Mexico was the premier mining colony
1800 demographics

smaller than had been. 1 million inhabitants, 60% were indigineous people mainly living in the highlands or alteplano. Language = Aymara. 20% mestizos who practiced pre-Spanish religious traditions.
African pop.

8% mainly in coastal Peru.

By late colonial period became a refugee camp for Spaniards fleeing SA countries that had declared independence. Resented Spanish dominance of political power, foreign trade, and imperial condescending attitudes of the spanish.
Last Bastion of Loyalism in SA

1) Geographic location - difficult to integrate into Atlantic trade economy. Didn't have an export that Europe wanted. Benefitted from port monopoly until Bourbons destroyed it.
2) Independence might worsen condition because they were heavily subsidized by the government, gov took money from richer colonies and gave it to Peru.
3) fear of lower class revolt/violence.
Tupac Amaru II

1780 Indian revolt led by him. Led rebellion with wife Micaela. Wealthy landowner educated by the Jesuits. wanted eradication of indian tribute - had meaning here because many indians paid it. The end of bonded labor and the return of indian lands. Appealed to creoles but he was too radical for them. He sacked towns and killed whites indiscriminately. 1781 he is caught and sentenced to death. became a symbol of Indian violence.
Independence (1821)

declared by San Martin with the help of Bolivar.

Mercury (gunpowder, silver)
Bajion Region, Guanajato

Mining Region and Mining Town where extremely successful

employed 3/4 of pop. Became increasingly commercialized. Growth came at the expense of subsistence peasantry and small farmers.

Increase in production of light pre-industrial goods, increase in population. Population [] in Mexico city. Spanish born had a monopoly on government positions.
-Creoles constituted majority of European population.
-Majority of population was indigineous. lived on communally owned Indian villages, integral part of colonial society (60%). no intermarriage, could not live in white towns. Mostly [] in central Mexico.
Large Landholders

Had much wealth, occupied powerful positions in Mexican society (priests, teachers, artisans, and skilled workers)

equivalent of Pardos in Venezuela Indigineous and Spanish mix. Africans in Mexico = minority group. Were prohibited from living in Indian and European villages and towns.
-were the rural/urban proletariat, servants in the cities and peons in rural areas.
-important as mine workers.

New royal officials who excluded creoles from politics, improved tax collection, increased taxes, haughty attitudes.
Free Trade concerns

For the most part very muted because only those in the slave economies along the coasts really cared.
-Yet Creoles resented mercantilism and the prohibitions on the Mexican people to prevent competition with Spanish producers.
-products more expensive for consumers.
-2/3 of revenue taken out of Mexico to spain or to subsidize other colonies undergoing hard times.
Jesuits expulsion (1867)

Creoles complained of this because had been the only order in which Creoles predominated.
-Jesuits had some of the best schools in Mexico

legal seizures of money/property to benefit the state
1804 Spanish war on British

Sequestered charitable funds of Mexican church to fund war. Church functioned almost as a bank so hurt not only the church but also all of the people who owed money to the church and who were asked to pay church back immediately, many had to sell their property.
Creole resistance to change

misnomeism (aversion to change/innovations), fear of lower class revolt, inertia.
Crisis of Legitimacy in Spain

News that Pepe Botella (JB) took control of Spain 1808 (?). Creoles got together and called for an assembly that took control in the name of Ferdinand VII. Yet the Spanish citizens stopped this, deposed the vice royal, they were really ruling in the name of Ferdinand.
1810 Creole uprising

Hidalgo (Miguel) was a creole priest in the town of dolores in the bajio mining region who had been influenced by the enlightenment. Summons parishioners to local church.
Grito de Dolores

A call to arms by Hidalgo (Miguel) to parishioners to rule in the name of Ferdinand. Gathered a huge army of 80,000. Essentially an undisciplined mob from the bajio mining region. People who were acutely aware of unjust power relations. They were hurting because of increases in food prices. They had been proomised social change that never came.

Gritos de Dolores, mob of people occupied mining town and bloodbath ensued. Killed anyone who was white and raped women. As though buildup of anger was being released at once. On way to mexico city defeat spanish army but turn back before get to Mexico. Hidalgo soon captured and killed alongside other major players.

the other big diety in the mexican patriotic pantheon. H was Mestizo, priest, father, radical agrarian program. Racial and Social equality. Spanish took gamble and armed Creole property owners and paid off, they were so fearful of lowerclass revolt (like the bloodbbath under Hidalgo) that they fought the radicalism of Morelos. in 1815 his army defeated by loyalist forces. Led by Iturbide.

defeated Morelos' forces, the struggle for independence then degenerates into guerrilla warfare.
1820 Spain revolt

people complain of absolutism of Ferdinand VII so new liberal council formed, yet they soon become somewhat despotic and imperialistic and give less autonomy to the colonies than does Ferdinand. They wanted to recoup lost colonies. They completely alienate the creoles. They were anticlerical and tried to restrict the actions of the churches. Tried to restrict privelages of the military.
-Essentially tries to go after almost every group that is powerful in Spanish society.

Military officers tried in military not civilian courts.
Iturbide (2) - 1821

Changes position and becomes part of independence movement against spain. not that violent, he declares independence in 1821. More Hidalgo's actions/call to arms celebrated more as date of independence.
Iturbide (3)

Called not only for independence but also a monarchy - wanted a prince to come but no one would so he crowned himself. Calls for fraternity between mexicans, spanish, and creoles.
-what began as a radical movement soon becomes a reactionary movement against spanish liberals.
-respect for all corporate associations including guilds.

Official independence.
Largest Portuguese colony yet didn't generate much wealth.
Brazil Wood

First commodity the Portuguese exploited in Brazil. Was an extractive economy, they deforested much land.
Dutch Occupation

1630-1664 - first jews in US were Dutch Jews.
Plantation Economy

Sugar + african slaves. Cape Verde Islands = first slave economy. 40% of slaves were imported into Brazil
Minas Gerais / Ouro Preto

Discovery of diamonds and gold in brazil, became most important producer of gold. / place that had gold but ran out.

Portuguese born whites dominated the imperial infrastructure. An element of competition and tension.

People born in the peninsula.


Someone of African ancestry born in Brazil.
Mazombo Conspiracy 1788

First attempt at Revolution. Wanted to est. a republic along the lines of the US. Its members were sentenced to death, then to exile except for one man tiradientes - he became a martyr

Involved in Mazombo Conspiracy, only person to be sentenced to death and killed. The poor, radical, yet not particularly important actors are admired.

1807 Napoleanic army invades Lisbon and many flee to Brazil.

Royal family of Portugal. King at time, 1808, King Joao opens the ports to trade, free trade, sometimes that people in other countries had to fight for for a long time.

Slaves ran away and formed slave community was so big that they had a political structure.

King Joao makes Brazil an equal kingdom to Portugal. He was ruling from a colony of Portugal, ie Brazil. Weird. Brazil gets new development of a nation.

Portuguese very imperialistic, demand the restoration of portuguese authority, trade monopoly, trying to turn the clock back. King Joao was aware if he didn't go back to Portugal that he would lose his crown and so he leaves with his son Dom Pedro still in power.
-in 1822 Portuguese parliament demands the return of king and prince.

King Joao says this to Portuguese when they ask him to live - means I will stay.
Cry of Iparanga

Dom Pedro issues this - a call to arms- no one really wanted to fight though, independence by default. The antithesis of revolution in Mexico.
By 1820s the spanish colonial possessions were pretty much gone with the exception of:
Cuba, 1898 and PR
---Independence Movement---
Birth of a nation, somewhat arbitrary
Philosophical materialism
Emphasis on economic structures and interest not on ideologies (liberty, equality etc triumphing over tyranny)
rebellious generation 1960s-70s
political environment at time changed the interpretation of 19th cent. Their argument was that not much had changed in independence. Transfer of power between elites (spaniards->creoles).
went from being formal colonies of spain to informal, de facto colonies of other powers.
Change with Independence: Political
Power vacuum with the getting rid of the Spanish government. In Brazil Braganzas (Fico) were accepted as ruling family yet with Mexico and Iturbide monarchy had no legitimacy and empire did not last for too long. Most places instead formed republics. Administrative structure had collapsed so hard to hold elections, also the creoles had been kept out of politics so they had little experience.
-Resort to military as only source of power because of power vacuum issues.
-ruralization of politics, with colonies govs tended to be overly centralized.
-urban officials ->warlords, chieftans, and landlords
Age of Caudillos
Aftermath of independence: landowners band together group of followers (peons, llaneros, etc) education/urbanity didn't count for much. Power not based on social graces/connections.
-politics more inclusive, emphasis on bravery, masculinity.
-difficult to have a monopoly on testosterone.
-called an organic democracy, closer connection between those leading and those being led.
Change with Independence: Religion
Loss of power of the church (Catholic). Continued from Bourbon reforms and loyalist policies.
Change with Independence: Political Decisions
made locally and more in tune with local concerns.
Change with Independence: Economic
Much destruction in terms of human lives, as well as mining and economic isolation due to political chaos and alienation from former allies.
-trying to pursue capitalism and not mercantilism. Have to change economy's structure.
-A period of stagnation and even decline begins with econ problems.
Change with Independence: Social
slave trade abolished in 1807, yet this in no means marks the end of slavery.
-Where slavery important to economy was aboliished much later after independence (Cuba 1886, Brazil 1888).
-Contradictory nature of the independent movement in terms of its treatment of slavery.
Effect on Indigineous pops
In some ways didn't change anything in a de facto way. But on the other hand they were often protected by the political, social, and economic turmoil.
---Effect on Argentina---
negative: lost rio de la plata, lost potosi, lost role as an entre pot between peru and europe. Spanish merchants left and took their capital with them. war expenditures to liberate other regions were costly and failures. trade imbalances with new trade with foreign partners, money outflow.
-No one was investing in LA countries.
-Andean region could not find a means of making money other than silver which had dried up.
-Eastern Argentina became richest region - based on cattle - can supply things needed for factories as written before.
-Cattle were self-transporting and so didn't have to deal with lack of transportation.
-shortage of labor and thus cattle farming also good.
-an example of extensive farming.
-increased the latifundia.
-yet you needed A LOT of land for this to work because could only kill certain percetage of herd.
sheep ranching
in Argentina. they had merino sheep and then replaced them with another breed, french merino. Irish came over as laborers during the potato famine. by 1860s replaces the bovine industry as the preeminent one. More sedentary than nomadic cattle industry, helps to populate the plains.
United Countries of the South
were anything but united.
wated a strong central government based in BA. Civilize the hinterland (back country). envisioned an open export economy totally linked to the world economy. Advocated tariffs to get revenue, appealed to urban consumers and producers.
envision a confederation, preserve regional autonomy, wanted to protect local producers (craftspeople). Wanted to protect them from British.
-regional caudillos, warlords, traditionalists.
-more likely to be religious and anti-intellectual, anti-secular, machismo.
Unitarians V. Federalists
Different economic plans. cultural divide. liberal v. conservative, urban v. rural. Religion - apparently some correlation?
1820 Struggle in Argentina
fragmented the country, struggle between two groups. 24 diff government in one day.
liberal, ideas were inspired by French enlightenment. British utilitarianism.
-he is called "Dr. Chocolate" because of his african sncestry. embarked on plan of liberal reforms, abolition of slavery, abolition of large landed properties that aren't used and they are hard to get to or the person who owns them cannot stand them.
Rivadavia - Dr. Chocolate - 1826 President of Argentina
implememented reforms - parliamentary system, universal male suffrage, anticlerical (backfired), no tithes, freedom of religion, public education, limited funding because few loans extended and no one wanted to pay taxes, created banks, joint-stock companies.
Lancaster system of Education
Promoted by Rivadavia - huge class where brighter/older students monitor others. Seems more efficient. Goes along with educational reforms of the time.
government gives out grants of public lands and loans to farmers, creates farming middle class. However, simply increased the latifundia class because no limit to the size of the grants.
exiled in 1829 - was too removed from reality at the time, had good intentions and some of reforms worked later.
Juan Manuel de Rosas 1829-52
antithesis of Rivadavia, was Caudillo. Conservative, opportunistic, pragmatic, no vision of unified state that would civilize the interior. Not intellectually inclined, enjoyed the admiration of the masses, especially the lower classes. He became the bad guy while Rivadavia the hero.
Rosas hero for nationalists and anti-imperialists
never employed european rhetoric for improvements, xenophobic and nativist, Took strong stance against English and French blockade in 1840s, imposed tariffs to protect local industry, more in tune with people of country, employed espionage system, large landowner, sold land to his friends, invited Jesuits back (!), abandoned parliamentary schemes and ruled by decree, politics became ruralized, undid rivadavia's reforms (many at least). Overthrown in 1852 because of emerging middle class, intellectuals, who joined with warlords to exile him.
Chile: Regions
1) Alpine (Araucanian - Indian people)
2) Central Valley (in the middle, most densely populated)
3) Northern deserts

after independence things look bad. 1830-1850 silver mines in the Atacama desert exploited, also copper (in 1840s 40% of world supply).
-agriculture increased, exported to Peru and Bolivia, they forced them to eliminate their tariffs.
-1848 gold rush, US became a customer
-Australia gold rush in 1849 so they bought food. British began buying cereals. Corn laws abolished in the UK and so tariffs protecting local farmers abolished/lowered (?) and economy penetrable.
-while most of LA in decline, Chile is booming.

1810 gov in spain collapses so prominent creoles in santiago declare a local gov that rules in the name of Ferdinand but groups loyal to spain take ocer and chile liberated from the outside by invading armies led by San Martin from Argentina.
Bernardo O'Higgins

The first president of Chile sent to Europe to study, learned ideas of enlightenment, met Miranda, leader of Venezuela in Europe. Similar to other liberal govs in LA.
Entails Mortmain

Idea of this was to preserve power and privelage of noble families
Conservative Gov.

proved to be very efficient. 1830. was able to impose a level of order not seen anywhere else.
from 1830-1870 four presidents.

Man behind 1830 gov. an atheist yet supported the power structure of the church.
Chilean Security due to: Geography

manageable size, one region socially, economically. Issues of regionalism essentially nonexistent.
Chilean Security due to: Social Unity

homogenous ruling class, replaced collapsed ruling institutions
Chilean Security due to: Economic prosperity

not bloody independence wars, most of mines discovered after wars and thus not destroyed. easy to transport because most parts near the coast. people more willing to pay taxes because feel they are part of one country.
Chilean Security due to: Homogenous population

feeling of nationalism soon developed, few slaves, few indigineous
Chilean Security due to: lack of mobilization

limit to how much power lower classes have. lower classes put into national armies not local militias.
Chilean Security due to: War (external)

1879 - war in pacific, conquered new territory
Geographic regions

1) Amazonia - no good 4 farming
2) Northeast - center of black culture in Salvador. Has largest black population outside of Nigeria
-richest to poorest area
3) Mato Grosso - combo of plains, rivers, was unpopulated now much soy bean production
4) Belindia - has technological advance yet a lot of poverty. Mining declined greatly.
1815 - British Portuguese treaty
made slave trade north of the equator illegal.
-lost their shipbuilding industry.

caused the Brazilian economy to boom but came quite late. Much disparity in wealth in this country.
1824 Rebellion

4/5 provinces rebelled because claimed gov was too centralized, when gov failed to respond adequately the provinces seceeded.
1828 secession

Cisplatine secedes and becomes Uruguay.
1831 Overthrow

Depose Pedro I in favor of his son Pedro II. regional revolts became more and more common.

revolt in SE Brazil, those who took part were raggedy. Revolt against governance, taxes imposed by central gov.
Rio Branco Law 1871

must free children of slaves however could keep themm working until they were 21 or could hand them over for compensation.

Slavery finally abolished, last country in Western Hemisphere to do this!
indigineous population wiped out when discovered - in 1/2 gens. lacked precious metals yet ranching and agricultural exonomy was prosperous. Was a weigh station for silver fleet, developed a service economy. Slaves represented less than 5% of pop and wealth generally stayed within the colony unlike with Haiti.
1791 Haitian revolution
ended sugar industry, richest colony in the world yet poor country.
Haitian Revolution

led to the introduction of Sugaar into Cuba and Cuba became more successful than Haiti had been. Cuba experienced boom in slave economy/importation of slaves.
Why Cuba stayed colony
1) terrified of slave revolts.
2) an island and so more difficult for outside liberators to come in.
3) Spain granted the elite free trade.
1895 liberation

Cuba liberated by the US, independence in 1902