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45 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Laser is an acronym for what?
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
What is thermal relaxation time?
The time needed for 50% of the heat to dissipate
What skin types are the best candidates for laser skin resurfacing?
Fitzpatrick types I and II, with fine to medium wrinkles
At which wavelength does the CO2 laser operate?
10,600 nm
What is the chromophore for the CO2 laser?
Water
What is the main side effect of the CO2 laser?
Erythema for 2-4 months
What wrinkles can be treated with a CO2 laser?
fine and deeper wrinkles
At which wavelength does the Er:YAG laser operate?
2940 nm
What is the chromophore for the Er:YAG laser?
water
Which laser can be used on areas of very thin skin (like dorsum of hand)?
Er:YAG laser
The Er:YAG laser is best for which type of wrinkles?
fine, superficial wrinkles (lunchtime peel)
What are the main side effects of the Er:YAG laser?
erythema for 2-4 weeks, bleeding
Why does bleeding occur with the Er:YAG laser, but not the CO2 laser?
The Er:YAG laser is not a coagulating laser
What are the major absorption peaks for hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin chromophores?
500-1000 nm
Laser therapy is the treatment of choice for which vascular malformations?
Capillary vascular malformations
Which lasers are useful for skin resurfacing?
Er:YAG laser and CO2
Which lasers are useful for treatment of vascular lesions?
Pulsed dye and KTP
Which lasers are useful for treatment of pigmented skin lesions?
Q-switched ruby, Q-switched alexandrite, Nd:YAG, frequency-doubled Nd:YAG, and copper bromide (or copper vapor)
Which lasers are useful for removal of red and orange tattoos?
Q-switched Nd:YAG and pulsed dye
Which lasers are useful for removal of all tattoo colors except red and orange?
Q-switched Alexandrite, Q-switched ruby
Which lasers are useful for hair removal?
Long-pulse ruby, long-pulse alexandrite, intense pulsed- light
Which lasers are useful for tattoo removal except red, orange and green?
Q-switched Nd:YAG
What are the most common adverse effects of laser tattoo removal?
multiple treatments usually necessary, may need more than one laser to target all pigments, hypopigmentation, incomplete removal
What are the most common adverse effects of laser hair removal?
requires several treatments, transient erythema, hypopigmentation
What is the most commonly used laser for capillary malformations (and is also used for telangiectasias)?
Flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser
At what wavelength does the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser operate?
585nm
What is the mechanism of action of the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser?
Light absorbed by hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin heats vessels to over 60 C for 1 ms causing endothelial cell contraction and vessel ablation
What is the major side effect of the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser?
purpura for 2-3 weeks
At what wavelength does the KTP laser operate?
532 nm
What is the main advantage of the KTP laser over the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser?
purpura rarely occur
Why is the Argon laser now rarely used in the treatment of vascular malformations?
High incidence of hypertrophic scarring and hypopigmentation
How do lasers remove tattoos?
Rapidly pulsed laser energy (Q-switched mode) penetrates to the level of the papillary dermis and heats particles until they explode. The smaller particles are removed by phagocytosis.
How long should you wait between treatments for laser tattoo removal?
3 weeks (the time it takes for phagocytosis to clear debris from last treatment)
What happens if tattoos with metal-containing pigments are treated by laser?
black discoloration instead of removal
What is the targeted chromophore with laser hair removal?
Melanin
What is the main side effect of laser hair removal?
Hypopigmentation (melanin is the targeted chromophore)
The laser can remove hair follicles in which phase of the growth cycle?
anagen
What is the typical regrowth rate after laser hair removal?
10%
What is the safest way to removed hair for darker skin colors?
EpiLight (590-1200 nm)
What laser can be used for hair restoration?
CO2 laser can be used to create micrograft recipient incisions
What laser can be used to treat acne scarring?
Er:YAG
How long do you wait after isotretinoin (Accutane) treatment before attempting laser acne scar tretment
1 year
How does isotretinoin (accutane) affect laser skin resurfacing?
Impairs re-epithelialization
What are the 4 absolute contraindications to laser resurfacing?
keloids, scleroderma, lupus, isotretinoin (Accutane) use within the previous year
Name some relative contraindications to laser resurfacing.
smoking, previous resurfacing, diabetes, prior skin irradiation, active acne, hypertrophic scarring, skin hypersensitivity, pigmentation disorders