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198 Cards in this Set

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Objectives of the ASLA are to provide:

1. Advocacy and awareness


2. Membership services and support


3. Support for the future of the profession


4. Governance and management

What is the CELA

Council of Educators in Landscape Architecure


- non-profit organization


- advocates Landscape architectural programmes


- provides forum for dialogue about Landscape Architecture education


- Fosters and disseminates Landscape Architectural scholarship

What is the IFLA

International Federation of Landscape Architects


- advance profession worldwide


- aesthetic achievement, and social change for public welfare


- preserve balance of ecological systems for future civilization


- establish high standards of professional practice

What is the LAAC

Landscape architecture accreditation council


- establish standards and review programmes in Landscape architecture at Canadian universities

Each Landscape Architectural programme is evaluated according to the following categories:

1. The stated objectives and achievement by students and graduates


2. Curriculums


3. Admissions


4. Faculties


5. Organization and administration


6. Faculties and resources

Criteria for a profession and it's practicioners

1. Specialized knowledge


2. Understanding theory and ability to apply it to practice


3. Ability to temper theoretical and technical decision-making with wisdom and understanding of human frailties


4. The imperative of altruistic service to the client

Original 3 chapters of the CSLA

College of Fellows


LAAC - Accreditation council


LACF - Canadian foundation

Statistics Canada recognizes Landscape architecture under this category

Natural and applied sciences and related occupations

CLARB's 4 primary areas of service

1. Land assessment


2. Site planning


3. Construction Documentation Preparation


4. Project Coordination and Management

Products of Landscape Architectural services

Landscape planning


Master planning


Site planning


Project design


Environmental assessments


Environmental impact assessments


Feasibility studies


Public involvement


Landscape/Land use policy


Site rehabilitation or reclamation plans


Heritage conservation plans


Parks and open space plans


Habitat creation plans


Urban design


OALA 4 categories of service

1. Consulting and advisory services


- general consultation and advice


- environmental studies


- site analysis


- appraisals


- report preparation


- research


- computer services


- management and/or administrative services


- establishment of terms of reference


- consultant co-ordination


- applications for permits and approvals



2. Conceptual planning and pre-design services



Conceptual planning


- obtaining and analyzing relevant data


- overall programme development


- development of alternative concepts


- preparation of estimates of capital and operating costs


Pre-design services


- master plans


- development pans


- conceptual designs


- planning approvals


- site plan agreements


- preliminary cost estimates


- permit applications


- consultant co-ordination



3. Design and contract documents



- working drawings


- specifications


- tender documents


- tender and award of contract


- consultant co-ordination



4. Services before and during construction



Contract management


- pre-qualification of bidders


- preparation and receipt of bids


- contact award



Field reviews and contract administration


- as-built drawings


- preparation of maintenance guidelines


- warranty inspections





Landscape industry can be divided into 4 areas

Professionals


Contractors


Manufacturers


Suppliers

What is the CNTA

Canadian Nursery Trades Association


- Landscape Trades at federal level


- produces standard specifications

In terms of Landscape architecture, each state or province through it's laws or statutes, performs the following to ensure the protection of health, safety and welfare of the public

1. Defines the profession


2. Specifies qualifications required to practice the profession


3. Outlines the administrative procedures required for licensure

What are "title" laws

- regulate the use of the name "Landscape Architect"


- illegal to use unless licensed and are a member of a regulatory body governing the profession


- may still perform work of Landscape Architect without title but cannot represent themselves as such.

What is "practice" law

- Prohibited for unqualified individuals to call themselves "Landscape Architects" AND to practice the profession


- may restrict use of title members

Requirements for licensure (6)

1. Minimum age requirement


2. Acceptable moral character


3. Minimum educational requirements


4. Minimum level of practical experience


5. Pass a minimum competency examination


6. Payment of registration fees and dues

CLARBs mission statement

To foster the public health, safety and welfare, related to the use and protection of the natural and built environments affected by the practice of Landscape architecture

ASLA Code of Environmental Ethics (4)

1. Health and well-being of biological systems are essential to sustain human well-being



2. Future generations have right to same environmental assessments and ecological aesthetics



3. Long-term economic survival has a dependence upon the natural environment



4. Environmental stewardship is essential to maintain a healthy environment

An individual's responsibilities to a profession include (3):

1. Social leadership such as public service


2. Improvement of the profession and professional knowledge through research and reform


3. Preservation and enhancement of the role of the profession

Practices harmful to the profession (4)

1. Advertising in a manner other than that which represents the dignity and responsibility of Landscape architecture



2. Use of the name CSLA except as provided by the By-Laws of the society



3. Use of Landscape Architect's name in any undertaking with which he/she has no professional capacity



4. To accept or undertake professional work beyond the capacity of the Landscape architect

A Landscape Architect's primary responsibility is to act in the best interests of the client or employer, provided that:

These interests do not conflict with the Landscape Architect's overall professional obligations.

Employment of a Landscape Architect is based upon trust in his/her professional integrity. Practices that cause this integrity to suffer are (4):

1. Receipt of any renumeration, directly or indirectly, in the form of commercial or speculative profit on materials or labour



2. Land development interests or the execution of construction work



3. Acceptance of any compensation from interests other than the client or employer.



4. Submission of work without compensation prior to contract agreements

Practices that can damage professional relationships (4):

1. Attempting falsely or maliciously to injure, or appear to injure, the professional reputation of another Landscape Architect.



2. Securing work on any other basis other than that of competence or experience



3. Soliciting work of another


landscape architect



4. Inter-professional collaboration which is detrimental to the reputation of the Landscape Architect

Ethical principles (OALA) (10)

1. Members shall always respond morally and ethically to all influences to which they may be subject in the practice of Landscape architecture



2. Members shall act fairly, honestly and in a manner they would be prepared to defend publicly



3. Members must make effort to not be professional associated with another member or person whose professional practice is unethical



4. Members shall exert every effort within limits of responsibilities to general public, to protect, preserve, and enhance earth's environmental resources



5. Members shall always endeavour to provide highest possible level of professional services to clients and employers



6. Members shall never place their own or their clients commercial interests above the health, welfare and safety of the public or the integrity of the profession



7. Members shall not undertake to provide professional services for which the Member is not qualified and shall make full disclosure to a client or employer whether they have been granted custody and use of the Association seal.



8. Members shall not give, lend or promise anything of value to any person for the purpose of unduly influencing that individual's judgement or actions with respect to some matter related to the Member's practice of Landscape architecture



9. Members shall not knowingly contravene, or counsel another to contravene, any law, regulation, By-Law, relevant code of ethics or code of professional conduct



10. Members shall not reveal the confidences entrusted to them in the course of their practice of Landscape architecture unless it becomes necessary in order to protect the welfare of society or the profession

Rules of Professional Practice - Clients (7)

1. If chosen to provide required services, the Member shall have reached agreement with the client or employer as to the nature and extent of such services and the compensation forthcoming



2. A member shall provide Landscape Architectural services for renumeration that is fully disclosed to the client, and which is both fair and reasonable.



3. Renumeration should normally be in form of fees or salaries and reimbursement of legitimate expenses. If any other form of renumeration, make client aware of conflict of interest possibilities



4. Member obligated to render services in an efficient and cost effective manner, so as to serve and protect the client's or employer's interest while maintaining acceptable standards of safety and quality.



5. Shall not withdraw services except for good cause and upon reasonable notice



6. If breach of ethics exists on project Member is associated with, advise employer or client, in writing, that breach exists. If breach is not dealt with, member must withdraw.



7. Shall not disclose, without consent or except as may be required by law, information concerning a client's or employer's business affairs, technical methods or processes.

OALA Membership and Other Professionals

1. Shall give full recognition and acknowledgement of the assistance or contribution of any other Landscape architect or related professional with whom the Member was associated on a project



2. Shall not claim or copy work of another Landscape Architect or related professional



3. Shall not either knowingly or recklessly make a false or malicious statement that may injure the professional reputation of another member or other person.



4. Shall not solicit or offer to undertake or contract for Landscape Architectural services knowing or having reason to believe that another member or entity has been engaged to provide services, on the same project, for the same or substantially the same purpose, by the same client.



5. Any member who knows or has reason to believe that another Member is engaged in misconduct which seriously threatens the welfare of others, or the integrity of the profession, is required to report the misconduct to the OALA and cooperate fully.

Ethics involving Education (4)

1. Have continuing responsibility to improve their own professional knowledge and skill and to keep abreast of the new developments within the field of Landscape architecture and related activities.



2. Have a social and professional responsibility to take reasonable steps to facilitate educational research and the development and dissemination of important info relating to the sound practice of Landscape architecture and related activities.



3. Have a social and professional responsibility to provide constructive, professional criticism when necessary to ensure the continued quality of Landscape Architectural practice and sound environmental planning



4. Full members shall carry out, with care and sensitivity, all responsibilities and duties they have with respect to the professional growth and education of associates.

Ethics involved in use of Seal (3)

1. A full member shall use only the seal issued to the Full Member by OALA



2. Full members shall affix imprint of seal to plans, drawings, details, reports and contract documents, related to their practice o Landscape architecture prepared by them or under their supervision, or under their signature, unless they are employed in government (prohibited)



3. A Full member shall in no instance affix an imprint of the Full Member's stamp to any work which was not prepared in its entirety by the full member, or prepared under the direct, personal supervision of the Full member

Ethics involved in advertising (2)

1. A member of OALA, except a Full member , may not knowingly/allow himself/herself to be called, referred to, or advertised or represent himself/herself as, a "Landscape architect"



2. Members' advertisements shall be either false nor in any way misleading

Ethics involved in Conflict of Interest (7)

1. A conflict of interest exists where a member has a private or personal interest sufficient to appear to influence the objective exercise of his/her duties. Disclose conflict of interest to client at first opportunity.



2. Conflict of Interest occurs when a person has a duty to promote one interest but chooses to promote a competing interest instead.



3. Member shall make full disclosure to client or employer of an financial or other personal interest which may in any way create or appear to create a conflict of interest for the Member.



4. Council members shall make full disclosure to the OALA of any financial... For the council member



or an OALA committee, or as an official representative of the OALA.



5. Members shall not disclose, without the consent of the OALA, confidential information to which the Member has gained access as a member of OALA council or an OALA committee, or as an official representative of the OALA.6. No member shall disclose confidential information received from a client or employer, except as authorized by law or with the consent of the client or employer



7. Members shall not permit any person, other than those who are appropriately entitled thereto, to inspect or have access to information, papers or documents which are confidential

What is the CCDC? And what do they provide?

Canadian Construction Document Committee.



They provide standardized contracts to expedite the contracting process.

What is the RAIC? And what do they provide?

Royal Architectural institute of Canada.



Standardized contracts to expedite the contracting process.

What is a tort?

Any private or civil wrong causing injury to a person or property.

What are intentional torts?

Assault and battery, trespass, false imprisonment, defamation, deceit, or nuisance

What are unintentional torts?

Negligence, incidents involving public safety and welfare, and liability claims against Landscape architect

4 examples of negligence torts

1. Professional malpractice - A mistake on a drawing that might result in injury. Ex. Poorly designed retaining wall that collapses.



2. Negligent retention - The Landscape Architect in charge of the office may be aware of an employer's dangerous practices but does nothing about it. This results in harm to someone.



3. Negligent failure to warn - that Landscape architect may be aware of a dangerous feature of their design but fails to warn the client or the users



4. Accidents that are a result of improper maintenance on the business premises

What is fee simple estate?

The right to use the property and the right to sell it.

What is leasehold estate?

Restricted form of ownership and rights to real property are subject to a specified time period. (Rental residential or commercial)

Dispute management spectrum diagram

To prove that a Landscape Architect was negligent, the court must prove that the Landscape Architect (4):

1. Was the person legally recognized as having duty for the particular matter of concern



2. Who provided an inferior service



3. That was in fact the cause of the problem ; and



4. Which did result in a measurable injury or damage.

To avoid court proceedings, alleged professional negligence may be resolved through __________.

Arbitration

The most common method of protection for Landscape Architects (insurance):

Professional liability insurance


"Errors and omissions"

The 6 components of design management:

1. Office management


2. Financial management


3. Client relations


4. Marketing


5. Project management


6. Contract administration

4 disciplines of professional practice in a design office:

1. Project design


2. Production of contract documents


3. Project management


4. Office administration, including the management of human resources, finances, marketing and client relations

A project report should include (6);

1. Info (name, location, etc.)


2. Status of work


3. How many goals met so far


4. Any missed milestones


5. Changes in scope and budget


6. Next steps

Steps for conducting a meeting (7):

1. Identify goals and objectives


2. Determine appropriate participants


3. Develop and distribute agenda prior to meeting


4. Review agenda and ground rules


5. Allow sufficient time to facilitate the work


6. Produce and distribute a meeting summary


7. Evaluate the meeting

Grant proposal requirements (7):

1. Summary of the proposal


2. Info about the requesting body


3. Description of need to be filled or problem to be solved


4. Work plan


5. Outcome/impact


6. Other funding sources


7. Budget

True or false: Figured dimensions govern dimensions scaled off same drawing.

True

True of False: Drawings of smaller scale govern over those of larger scales with the same date.

False. (Opposite is true).

True or false: Drawings govern specifications

False. (Opposite is true)

True or false: General conditions govern over specifications

True

True or False: Supplementary conditions govern over general conditions.

True

True or false: Documents with earlier date govern

False. (Opposite is true)

What is unique about a transfer of land ownership contract (in terms of the contract itself) ?

Contract must be written

For a contract to be enforceable (3):

1. Evidence of consensus


2. Evidence of mutual benefit (consensus)


3. Certainty that the: who, what, when, where and how of the contract can be interpreted by a 3rd party.

A contract between an LA and client includes (8):

1. Identification of the client


2. Project description


3. Job number


4. Location of work/project


5. Scope of work


6. Price/fees


7. Time of duration of contract


8. Signature

Summary of LA's responsibility during pre-design (4):

1. Program


2. Data Gathering


3. Analysis


4. Documentation

Summary of LA's responsibility during the design development phase (4):

1. Conceptual


2. Schematic


3. Development/working drawings


4. Construction details

Summary of LA's responsibilities post-design development (7):

1. Bidding


2. Tender


3. Contract documents


4. Contract


5. Construction admin.


6. Post construction inspections


7. Project close-out

A bid form identifies the total bid price __________ taxes and allowances.

Before

What are the two methods a surety will use to mitigate obligee's loss in the event of an obligee initiated claim?

1. Remedy the default: advance funds to the principle to complete the project



2. If no remedy: Obligee engages new GC to complete project or; surety completes construction contract

What is an addenda?

1. Modification or clarifications to bidding documents



2. Issued to all bidders during bidding period (bid advertisment to bid close)

Quality control procedures for construction: Ensure "move-in" requirements are met (5):

1. Bonds are posted


2. Legal notifications have been made


3. Insurance is obtained


4. Project schedule has been submitted and accepted


5. Required labour notices have been made

Quality control procedures for construction: once "move-in" requirements are met, Pre-start meeting should be scheduled to (6):

1. Establish communication methods


2. Identify personal, authorities and contact #


3. Review the scope and timing


4. Identify operating constraints


5. Clarify contract documents and drawings


6. Establish admin. procedures

Can a Landscape Architect reject materials once they have already been delivered to site and inspected?

Yes.

Professional liability insurance generally includes 3rd party coverage of claims and defense costs for:

1. Injury


2. Property Damage


3. Loss due to personal injury

During the bidding process, allow enough time for contractors to (5):

1. Visit Site


2. Get quotes from SC's


3. Prep Qty takeoffs


4. Obtain bid bonds


5. Prep proposals

What are the advantages for requiring general contractors to list their subcontractors during bidding (2):

1. Can disqualify bidders if Subcontractors are found to be u acceptable



2. Prevents Post-bid shopping around for Subcontractors

What are alternate bids?

A request for general contractors to include alternate prices/bids that establishes the value of extras and credits when change is required during construction.

The amount of bonding that a general contractor can obtain is an indicator of:

The contactors ability to do the work

Bonds are requested from the general contractor when (2):

1. GC submits bid; or


2. When contract doc are already signed by owner and GC

A bid form includes (3):

1. Total bid price before taxes and allowances


2. Itemizes scope of work


3. Identifies allowance

An allowance is a dollar amount or quantity of product NOT in the contract docs but must include on bid. What are the two types:

1. QUANTITY allowance: materials quantity that is NOT shown on drawing but GC is asked to include on bid



2. CASH allowance: Dollar value includes in bid . Not necessarily attached to any part of the work but is added to total bid price (Often a % of bid price).

A change order is usually issued when (2):

1. The contractor could not have reasonably known through pre-bid site visit, and was not reavled through the borehole soil analysis



2. Desire by client to add component to design

Change orders can only be considered as such if the requested change affects the contract ________ and/or _________. Otherwise it is known as a ________ _________.

Price, duration, field change.

How may cost of changes be determined (4):

1. Estimated and accepted lump sum


2. Approved unit prices for extra work


3. Cost of the work plus a fixed or ℅ fee for the contractor; and


4. Revisions to the contract unit prices

What are the two common ways of dealing with changes:

Contractor quote:


1. LA issues "contemplated change order" to GC


2. GC provides quote for cost of work


3. If acceptable by LA and client, change order issued by LA.



Unit price quote in Bid Package:


1. Unit prices for extras and credits included in bid package submitted by GC.


2. LA prepares Change Order using these prices without first submitting "contemplated change order"

When a change is requested that involves additional work, what are the two ways a Change Order affects the contract:











Increased total contract value:1. Change order acts as documentation2. Indicates more money is owed to the GC than originally shownContingency draw1. Often 10℅ of contract price2. Change order may draw from contingency allowance 3. Does NOT increase total price of contract4. Increases money owed to GC

How are progress payments administered to GC (3):

1. GC invoices for payment


2. LA determines if claimed work is complete


3. Issues certificate of payment

What happens when the GC thinks that the work is substantially performed (5):

1. GC contacts LA, and requests inspection


2. Small projects are substantially complete at 97℅ whereas large projects require certificate of substantial performance be published in a construction trade newspaper


3. LA ensures conformance of finished work with specs


4. If not met, substantial performance is not awarded


5. GC remedies deficiencies identified on "punch list".

A "post construction evaluation" should be performed when:

After the users have experienced the project/site.

Specification sections (3)

1. Part 1 General


2. Part 2 Products


3. Part 3 Execution

What does "preserve" a lien mean

Make a claim within 45 days

What does "perfect" a lien mean?

Start or join court action within 45 days of "preserving"

What is a WBS?

Work Breakdown Structure


- A list of tasks and subtasks with budgets and durations

What is CPM (3)?

Critical Path Method


1. Network diagram that graphically shows a project


2. Predicts time needed to complete the project


3. Highlights those tasks that are critical to maintaining the project schedule

In scheduling parlance, slack time is often called _________.

Float

Gantt and the bar chart

Tasks and duration represented by a bar chart

14 principles of Management

1. Division of work


2. Clear lines of authority


3. Discipline


4. Unity of command


5. Unity of direction


6. Subordination of individual interest


7. Renumeration (fair compensation for work performed)


8. Centralization


9. Scalar chain (the hierarchical ladder)


10. Order


11. Equity


12. Stability of tenure


13. Initiative


14. Esprit de corps (sense of pride in the organization)

Person responsible for management must perform 5 basic functions:

1. Planning


2. Organizing


3. Commanding


4. Coordinating


5. Controlling

Who is ultimately responsible for the successful completion of a project

The project manager

What is PMI?

Project Management Institute

PMI defines project management as:

The application or knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. Project management is accomplishing the application and integration of the project management processes of initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling and closing.

5 "project management process groups"

1. Initiating processes


2. Planning processes


3. Executing processes


4. Monitoring and controlling processes


5. Closing processes

Goals are the purposes of Project Management to reach the end... (6)

1. Of the project


2. On budget


3. On time


4. Safely


5. Error-free


6. Meeting everyone's expectations

Goals refer to...

Purposes of Project Management

Objectives refer to...

Project outcomes that must be achieved to fulfill specific purpose.

Factors that affect the perceived success of a Project (7):

1. Co-ordination and human relations


2. Budget, schedule, and technical performance


3. Project conceptual difficulties


4. Project organizational structure and management controls


5. Project budgetary constraints


6. Project importance and public exposure


7. Team capabilities

5 project phases

1. Start


2. Planning


3. Design


4. Production


5. Closeout

6 fundamental project management activities:

1. Defining project's scope of work, budget and schedule (objectives)


2. Planning the work effort so objectives are met


3. Directing the design team so planned objectives are met


4. Coordinating the efforts of the design team so that interdisciplinary information flows smoothly and at the right time


5. Monitoring the design team's work product and progress against project objective, budget and schedule.


6. Learning from the project. How to improve performance on next project.

Four basic organizational structures for design firms:

1. Sole proprietorship


2. Design studios


3. Multiple studio organizations


4. Matrix organizations

Main "must-haves" as a PM (8):

1. High motivation to manage


2. Ethical and professional behaviour


3. Technical and legal competency


4. Pragmatic decision-making skills


5. Ability to make decisions with incomplete information


6. A generalist's experience, education, and attitude


7. Good communication skills


8. Ability to empower a design team

Pragmatic decision-making involves using all 3 inference tools of logic:

1. Deduction - conclusion follows from one or more general premises



2. Induction - conclusion can be drawn from one or more specific observations or facts



3. Abduction - the logic of discovery. An educated guess based on past experience used in problem solving

Most of a PM's decisions are made ___________?

Abductively

What is a project organization chart?

1. A graphic which shows the disciplines required to do the work


2. Reporting structure


3. Shows which disciplines are in-houseand which are consultants


4.includes names and project titles of key team members


5. Should always include the quality-control manager, the project principal, and the cadd manager


6. Include project controller if there is one.


7. Important to include all disciplines needed, no matter how small


8. Best to have team members involved from the beginning


9. Make sure all team members will be available when the time comes for them to do the project work

A project quality-control manager does what?

Establishes procedures to minimize mistakes

A project controller does what?

Keeps PM out of financial reporting trouble with upper management and helps identify problems in advance

A task requires 3 elements to fully define it:

1. Objective: measurable outcome


2. Duration: length of time budgeted


3. Level of effort: measured in hours and number of labour hours or labour dollars

How is an assignment different from a task.

A task must contain all three elements

What organizational structures are commonly used for a WBS

List and tree structures

Common structure used to organize WBS (5)?

1. Developed iteratively. Big picture... Hone in


2. It is hierarchical


3. Right amount of detail


4. Contains tasks


5. Based on relevant past experience in project management and design

What is included in the development of the project schedule (2):

1. When information and deliverables are due


2. Timeline benchmark

In terms of quality-control, what are some other project-specific procedures and standards that should be identified (5):

1. Project work safety plan


2. CADD standards


3. Special project accounting and invoicing procedures


4. Project filing standards


5. Standard formats for documenting calls and meetings

What is a project work plan document and what are the major components (6)

Provides basic information and describes the planning activities and procedures



1. Project objectives


2. Project team


3. Project task-budget info


4. Project schedule info


5. Project quality control procedures


6. Misc. Procedures

Who typically receives copies of a project work plan document?

Everyone involved in project except client (generally)

5 basic strategies for controlling risk

1. Prevention


2. Transference


3. Mitigation


4. Contingency planning


5. Assumption

Do not start the production of contract documents until the design is...

Well-defined and approved by client

Standard form of agreement published by AIA (designer/owner)

B141

Standard form of Agreement published by (EJCDC) (engineer/owner):

EJCDC 1910-1

What are "deal-breaker" clauses (2):

1. Indemnity clauses that require the design firm to indemnify and defend the owner against all claims.


2. Guaranties, warranties, or certification clauses that require the design firm to guarantee, warrant, or certify things and work that are beyond the firms control.

If client insists on including or excluding something that greatly affects the risk, PM must...

Advise client of repercussions. (If it continues, PM must advise principal who may be more persuasive)

What is a lump sum (or fixed price) fee type (2):

1. Payment linked to contract-defined deliverables (℅ of job that is complete)


2. Used when design project is well-defined

What is a time and materials fee type?

1. Design firm paid for labour and it's other direct costs (ODCs)


2. Hourly labour rates


3. Impossible to go over budget


4. Used when it is difficult or impossible to determine scop of work in advance

What is a cost plus fixed fee, fee type?

1. Paid for it's costs, labour and materials


2. Profit is a negotiated fixed amount even if actual cost varies


3. Advantages for both parties

A cost plus fixed fee with GMP protects owner from...

Severe cost overruns

Methods for delivery, storage and testing or materials stipulated in contract specs (5):

1. Requirements for product certification.


2. Specific deliver packaging, methods and unloading requirements.


3. Conditions of acceptance at the site


4. Precaution requirements for storage


5. Warranties

Testing may include:

1. Soil boreholes for lab analysis


2. Pit Excavation testing


3. Concrete slump tests


4. Soil bearing capacity testing


5. Fill suitability testing

Change orders are usually issued as a result of unforeseen subsurface conditions that (2):

1. Contractor could not have reasonably known thru pre-bid site visit, and was not revealed through the borehole soils analysis


2. Or a desire by client to add a component to the design

Cost of changes can be determined by (4):

1. Estimated and accepted lump sum


2. Approved unit prices for extra work


3. Cost of the work plus a fixed or ℅ fee for the contractor ;and


4. Revisions to the contract

2 common ways of dealing with changes:

1. Contractor quote


- LA issues "contemplated change order" to GC


- GC provides quote for cost of work


- if acceptable to LA and client, change order issued by LA


2. Unit price quote in Bid Package


- unit prices for extras and credits included in bid package submitted by GC


- LA prepares Change Order using these prices without first submitting "Contemplated Change Order"

A change order must describe in detail (3):

1. Nature of work


2. Cost of each unit of work


3. Total cost calculated based on all extras and credits (added or deducted from contract)

When change is requested the requires additional work, there are 2 ways the change order can affect the contract:

1. Increased total contract value


- change order acts as documentation


- indicates more money is owed to the GC than originally shown


2. Contingency draw


- often 10% of contract price as quoted by GC


- change order may draw from contingency allowance


- does NOT increase total price of contract


- increases money owed to GC

Any verbal advice or orders given on site should be followed up in ________, even when a change order is not Involved.

Writing

Progress payments (3)

1. GC invoices for payment


2. LA determines if claimed work is complete


3. Issues certificate of payment

Drawings should show (8):

1. Exyent, size, shape, and location of component parts


2. Location of materials, equipment and fixtures


3. Detail and overall dims


4. Interrelation of materials, equipment, and fixtures


5. Schedules of finishes, windows and doors


6. Sizes of equipment


7. ID of class of material at its location


8. Physical extent of alternatives

Specs should describe (7):

1. Type and quality of materials, equipment, and fixtures


2. Quality of workmanship


3. Methods of fabrication, installation, and erection


4. Test and code reqs


5. Gages of manufacturers equipment


6. Allowances and unit prices


7. Alternate and options

When GC thinks work is substantially performed (4):

1. Contacts LA , and requests inspection


2. Small projects: substantially completed at 97℅, large projects: require certificate of substantial performance be published in a construction trade newspaper


3. LA ensures conformance of finished work with specs. If not met, substantial performance is not awarded. GC remedies deficiencies


4. LA also reviews GC work on frequent site visits

LA reviews shop drawings (2):

1. For design conformance


2. Contractor must still adhere to specs

LA can demand that GC remedies bad work within ________ of notice of such

5 days

A "post construction evaluation" should be performed after the users have...

Experienced the project/site

True or false: Issuance of certificate of substantial completion by LA guarantees correctness of work

False.

Specification sections

Part 1. General


Part 2. Products


Part 3. Execution

What does it mean to "preserve" a lien?

Make a claim within 45 days

What does it mean to "perfect" a lien?

Start or join court action within 45 days of preserving

Statutory holdback for _______ is different than holdbacks for _________

Liens, deficiencies

What is a WBS?

Work Breakdown Structure


- a list of tasks and subtasks with associated budgets and durations

What is the CPM (3)?

Critical Path Method


1. Network diagram that graphically shows a project


2. Predicts time needed to complete project


3. Highlights those tasks that are critical to maintaining the project schedule

In scheduling parlance, slack time is often called ______

Float

Principles of management (14):

1. Division of work


2. Clear lines of authority


3. Discipline


4. Unity of command


5. Unity of direction


6. Subordination of individual interest


7. Renumeration (fair compensation for work performed)


8. Centralization


9. Scalar chain (hierarchical ladder)


10. Order


11. Equity


12. Stability of tenure


13. Initiative


14. Esprit de corp (sense of pride for the organization)

Person responsible for management must perform the 5 basic functions:

1. Planning


2. Organizing


3. Commanding


4. Coordinating


5. Controlling

Who is ultimately responsible for the successful completion of a project?

Project manager

What is the PMI?

Project management institute

5 "project management process groups"

1. Initiating processes


2. Planning processes


3. Executing processes


4. Monitoring and controlling processes


5. Closing processes


Project Management is a ________ process

Pragmatic

Goals of project management are to reach the end (6)...

1. Of the project


2. On budget


3. On time


4. Safely


5. Error-free


6. Meeting everyone's expectations

Goals refer to _______ of project management, while objectives refer to _________ __________ or ________ that must be used to fulfill a specific purpose.

Purposes, project outcomes, results

Factors that affect the perceived success of a project (7):

1. Co-ordination and human relations (most important)


2. Budget, schedule, and technical performance


3. Project conceptual difficulties


4. Project organizational structure and management controls


5. Project budgetary constraints


6. Project importance and public exposure


7. Team capabilities

5 project phases of project management:

Start


Planning


Design


Production


Closeout

6 activities of project management:

Defining - scope of work


Planning - work effort to meet obj.


Directing - design team to meet obj.


Coordinating - efforts of design team


Monitoring - design team's work


Learning- from the project

4 design office management structures:

1. Sole proprietorship


2. Design Studios


3. Multiple studio organizations


4. Matrix organizations

8 main "must-haves as a PM:

1. High motivation to manage


2. Ethical and professional behaviour


3. Technical and legal competency


4. Pragmatic decision-making skills


5. Ability to make decisions with incomplete information


6. A generalist's experience, education, and attitude


7. Good communication skills


8. Ability to empower a design team

Motivation to manage factors (5)

1. Favourable attitude toward authority


2. Desire to compete


3. Desire to exercise power


4. Desire for a distinctive position


5. A sense of responsibility

3 inference tools of logic:

1. Deduction - inference that a conclusion necessarily follows from one or more general premises


2. Induction - inference that a general conclusion can be drawn from one or more specific observations or facts


3. Abduction - the logic of discovery. An educated guess based on past experience used in problem solving

Most PM decisions are made _________.

Abductively

PMs must be able to facilitate meetings (3):

1. Hold team meetings only when they have a purpose


2. A good PM summarizes what has been decided, what actions are to be taken and by whom at meeting end


3. Distribute meeting minutes shortly afterward to everyone in attendance and others who may have interest

A good PM uses e-mail to (3):

1. Confirm a recent discussion or decision. PM request confirmation


2. Communicate simple, clear-cut, factual information that requires no feedback


3. Transmit lengthy documents as attachments

Good PMs do not use email (2):

1. In lieu of decision making and/or brainstorming meetings


2. To share important, complicated information that may require follow-up questions

Before beginning the project planning process, the project manager must...

Read and understand the contract or agreement between the owner and the design professional

The purpose of a project work plan (7):

1. Divides project into logical tasks for performance and monitoring purposes


2. Establishes team member responsibilities


3. Projects reporting structure


4. Project-specific procedures (safety)


5. CAD standards and QC procedures


6. Provides necessary information to the firm's accounting department


7. Provides project information to firm's upper management to prove project was properly planned.

6 objectives of work plan:

1. Definition of project objectives


2. Identification of project team


3. Breakdown of the project into task budgets


4. Development of a project schedule


5. Establishment of the project QC system


6. Identification of other project-specific procedures and standards

What ℅ of construction costs are typically reserved in a contingency fund?

10℅

What is a project organization chart (8):

1. Graphically show the disciplines required to do the work and the reporting structure for the project


2. Shows which disciplines are in-house and and which are consultants


3. Includes names and project titles of key team members


4. Should always include the quality-control manager, the project principal, and the CAD manager


5. Should also include the project controller, if there is one


6. It is important to include all the disciplines needed to complete all the required tasks, no matter how small


7. Best to have team members involved from the beginning


8. Make sure all team members will be available when the time comes for them to do the project work

What does a QC manager do?

Establishes procedure to keep mistakes to a minimum

What is a project controller?

Keeps PM out of financial reporting trouble with upper management, and helps the PM identify potential problems coming along well enough in advance to take corrective measures

A task requires 3 elements to fully define it:

1. An objective - measurable outcome


2. A duration - time budgeted


3. A level of effort - measured in labour hours or labour dollars

What is the difference between an assignment and a task?

An assignment does not have all three elements of a task

Common structure to organize project tasks:

Work Breakdown Structure


(Lists and tree structures are commonly used)

What are the basic elements of the project schedule (2)?

1. When information and deliverables are due


2. Timeline benchmark

Project-specific procedures and standards (5):

1. Project work safety plan,


2. CAD Standards,


3. special project accounting and invoicing procedures


4. Project filing standards


5. Standard formats for documenting calls and meetings

The project work plan document contains (6):

1. Project objectives


2. Project team


3. Project task-budget info


4. Project schedule information


5. Project QC procedures


6. Misc. Procedures

When should the PM assemble a project organization chart?

After the project team has been assembled.

Who receives a copy of the project work plan document?

Everyone involved in the project except the client (generally)

Strategies for controlling risk (5):

1. Prevention - reduce # of threats


2. Transference - make sure other party is responsible for threats


3. Mitigation - lessen impact of threats


4. Contingency planning - plan to cope for threats


5. Assumption - identify threats and accept their potential impacts

Reducing contractual risk (8):

1. Use standardized contact forms


2. Understand provisions


3. Avoid contact language that increases risk


4. Avoid unacceptable risks


5. Use fee types appropriate for services provided


6. Provide more comprehensive services


7. Identify excluded/included services


8. Specify how disputes will be resolved

Reducing non-contractural risk

1. Inform client of potential risks


2. Choose consultants carefully


3. Do NOT start production of contract documents until design is well-defined and approved by client


4. Avoid running project without budget and schedule contingencies

Standard form of agreement published by AIA (designer/owner)

B141

Standard form of agreement published by EJCDC (engineer/owner)

EJCDC 1910-1

What are deal breaker clauses?

Indemnity clauses that require the design firm to indemnify and defend the owner against all claims, not just those caused by the design firm's negligence.

If client insists on including or excluding something that greatly affects the risk, PM must...

Advise client of repercussions. If it continues, PM must advise principal who may be more persuasive.

Lump sum (or fixed price) is used when...

The design project is well-defined

A time and materials fee type is used when...

It is difficult or impossible to determine the scope of work in advance

Cost plus fixed fee (3):

1. Paid for it's costs, labour and materials


2. Labour costs do not carry profit


3. Profit is a negotiated fixed amount even if actual costs varies

Dispute resolution techniques in lieu of lawsuit (3):

1. Partnering


2. Mediation


3. Arbitration

When does the warranty period begin?

After substantial completion is awarded

When may liens be filed

After substantial completion has been awarded.

When is the last progress payment issued?

After awarding substantial completion.

What is a schedule of values, when is it submitted, and under what type of contract would a schedule of values be submitted?

A schedule of values is a list of work items with an associated cost submitted to the LA at the beginning of the project. A schedule of values would be used in a lump sum contract.