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67 Cards in this Set

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Meaning unit that can't occur alone but must be joined to a free morpheme; generally includes grammatical tags or markers that are derivational, such as -ly, -er, -ment or inflectional, such as -ed or -s
Bound morpheme
Meaning unit that can occur alone, sug as dog, chair, run, and fast
Free morphemes
Smallest unit of meaning; indivisible (dog) without violating the meaning or producing meaningless units, (do, g). There are two types of morphemes, free and bound.
morpheme
Smallest linguistic unit of sound, each with distinctive features, that can signal a difference in meaning when modified
phoneme
Aspect of language concerned with the rules governing the structure, distribution, and sequencing of speech-sound patterns.
phonology
A code whereby ideas about the world are represented through a conventional system of arbitrary signals for the purpose of communication
language
Organizational rues specifying word order, sentce organization, and word relationships
syntax
Aspect of language concerned with rules governing the meaning or content of words or grammatical units.
semantics
Autiobiographical and experiential understanding and memory of events reflecting personal and cultural interpretations
world knowledge
Perceptual or functional apsects of meaning that characterize a word
semantic features
Linguistic intuitions on the acceptability of communication
metalinguistic cues
Aspect of language concerned with rules governing change in meaning at the intraword level
morphology
Language rule system of an identifiable group that varies from the rule system of an ideal standard
dialects
Verbal word and symbol definitions
word knowledge
Basic unit of communication; an intentional, verbally encoded message that includes the speaker's intentions, the speaker's meaning, the message's meaning, and the listener's interpretation.
speech act
Long strings of sounds that children begin to produce at about four months of age
babbling
Head to foot development progession
cephalocaudal
Immediate, whole or partial vocal imitation of another speaker; characterizes the child's speech beginning at about eight months
echolalia
Expressions that use words or phrases in an impression or represent an abstract concept, can't be interpreted literally.
figurative language
Strings of unintelligible speech sounds with the intonational pattern of adult speech
jaron
Individual dictionary of each person containing words and the underlying concepts of each. The lexicon is dynamic, changing with experience
lexion
Cortical area of the left frontal lobe of the brain responsible for detailing and coordinating the programming of speech movements
Broca's area
Partial resonance of speech sounds found in neonates
quasi-resonant nuclei
Long strings of consonant-vowel syllable repetition, such as ba-ba-ba-ba-ba, that appear in the vocal play of six to seven month old infants
reduplicated babbling
Long strings of nonidentical syllables that appear in the vocal play of some eight to ten month old infants
variegated babbling
Area located in the auditory cortex of each hemisphere of the brain that receives incoming auditory signals from the inner ear
Heschl's gyrus
Language-processing area of the brain, located in the left temporal lobe; responsible for organizing the underlying structure of outgoing messsages and analyzing incoming linguistic information
Wernicke's area
Memory in which information is held while being processed
working memory
Process of reorganizing cognitive structures or schemes or creating new schemes in response to external stimuli that don't fit into any available scheme
accommodation
Process by which external stimuli are incorporated into existing cognitive structures or schemes.
assimilation
Theory that the experiences of speakers of different languages vary; that groups with the same language think in the same manner.
linguistic relativism
Process of maintaining information within the long-term memory; repetition, drill, or pracitce.
rehearsal
Entity that represents another entity containing similar features. Ex: a word is a symbol or the entity it represents
symbol
Process of breaking a speech stream into analyzable units by detecting end points or divisions through the use of intonational cues.
bracketing
Process of breaking speech stream into analyzable units based on predictability of syllables and phoneme structures
clustering
Shared action sequences of mother and child, often routines. Provide for many scripts
joint action
Vocal interactions between mother and infants that resemble the verbal exchanges of more mature conversations.
protoconversation
Scaffolding or predictable structure of an event that provides "slots" for participation and aids comprehension.
script
Differentiation of one entity from many; noting the presence of a single object, action, or event for one's communication partner.
referencing
Process of learning language in which the child uses what he or she knows to decode more mature language.
bootstrapping
Style of talking used most often by white middle-class American mothers when addressing their eighteen to twenty-four month old toddlers.
motherese
Toddler language-learning strategy in which the child attempts to learn the name of an entity by asking What? That? or Waassat?
interrogative utterance
The number of possible words that differ by one phoneme and a factor characteristic in shaping a child's emerging lexical system.
neighborhood density
Process in which a child applies a word's meaning to more exemplars than an adult would. The child's definition is too braod and is thus beyond acceptable adult usage
overextension
Process in which a child applies a word meaning to fewer exemplars than an adult would. The child's definition is too restrictive and more limited than in adults usage
underextension
Grammatical mechanism that notifies the listener that the speaker is referring to a previous reference.
anaphoric reference
The linking of entities in a narrative to form a story necleus. Links may be baesd on similarity or complementarity of features, sequences, or causality.
centering
Narrative form consisting of a sequence of events that share attributes and lead directly from one to antoher.
chaining
Process of using the speaker's perspective as a reference. Ex: seen in words such as this, that, here, there, me, and you.
deixis
Conversational device of omitting redundant information
elipsis
Consists of self-generated story; familliar tale, retelling of a movie, television show, or preiviously heard or seen story; and pesronal experience recounting
narrative
Situationally influenced language variations, such as motherese.
register
Group of words containing a subject and the accompanying verb; used as a sentence (independent clause) or attached to an indedpendent clause (dependent clause)
clause
Form of the verb to be as a main verb. Signifies a relationship between the subject and a predicate adjective
copula
Placing a phrase or dependent clause within a phrase or clause
emedding
Process of inserting a vowel sound where none is required.
epenthesis
Auxillary or helping verb used to express mood or attitude, such as ability (can), permission (may), intention (will), possibility (might), and obligation (must)
modal auxillary
Clause that can't occur alone but functions in support of the main clause
subordinate clause
Sentence consisting of two or more main clauses
compound sentence1
Joining two or more main clauses with a conjunction
conjoining
Process of moving from one dimensional descriptions of entities and events to coordinated multiattributedal ones
decentration
Aspect of linguistic processing that enables the user to think about language in the abstract and/or out of context and to make judgements about the appropriateness or correctness of language.
metalinguistic
Term used to refer to changes in sound production related to meaning changes
morphophonemic
Consideration of phonology at a conscious level, including syllabification; sound identification, manipulation, segmentation, and bleding; needed for for the development of reading
phonologic awareness
Vocabulary of a dominant language used by speakers of a nondominant one with little or no grammatical structure.
pidgin
One member of a word class used to the exclusion of all others.
archiform
Grammar and structure from two or more languages used as a single language system
creole