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104 Cards in this Set

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protected by upper 1/2 of skull, contains brain
Cranial cavity
- protected by “spine”, holds spinal cord
Vertebral (Spinal) cavity
- contains the viscera
Ventral cavity
protected by the ribcage
Thoracic cavity (Thorax)
(midline region of the chest) contains heart, trachea, esophagus, thymus
Mediastinum
lateral to the mediastinum
Pleural cavity
space between the doubled, pleural membranes which surround the lungs
Pleural cavity
a.k.a.pleura
pleural membranes
located within the mediastinum
Pericardial cavity
a space between the doubled, pericardial membranes
which surround the heart
Pericardial cavity
a.k.a. pericardium
Pericardial cavity
- found below the diaphragm
Abdominopelvic cavity
- has little bony protection
contains stomach, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, spleen,
kidneys, small intestine and the beginning of the large
intestine and is lined by doubled peritoneal
membranes
Abdominal cavity (Abdomen)
a.k.a. peritoneum
Abdominal cavity (Abdomen)
- protected by "hip bones" and
sacrum contains urinary bladder, sigmoid colon,
rectum, and in women, uterus and ovaries
Pelvic cavity (Pelvis)
Superior (Cranial)
above- head
Inferior (Caudal)
below- away from head
Anterior (Ventral)
front of body
Posterior (Dorsal)
back of body
Medial
midline
Lateral
away from midline
between medial and lateral
intermediate
closer to origin of the body part
proximal
farther from origin of body part
distal
toward body surface
superficial (external)
away from body surface
deep (internal)
divides body into right and left
sagittal plane or section
divides through the torso: anterior and posterior
frontal (Coronal) plane
diagonal: superior and inferior
transverse/horozontal plane (cross section)
Head, neck and trunk make up__
axial part of body
- the entire area of the head
Cephalic region
forehead
frontal region
eye
orbital
chin
mental
chest, anterior, superior
pectoral
where lefs meet trunk on front of body
inguinal
otic
ear
point of shoulder
acromial
between anus and genitalia
perineal
"ante-" means _____
before
back of elbow
olecranal
lateral areas of lower leg
peroneal/fibular
a collection of cells + intercellular material (the matrix) which
together perform a specific function.
TISSUE
family allows control
NERVOUS
family provides
MUSCLE
family covers or lines
EPITHELIAL
family supports
CONNECTIVE
EPITHELIAL TISSUE: singular?
EPITHELIUM
EPITHELIAL TISSUES: plural?
EPITHELIA
A. sheets of tissue which are cell-rich, matrix-poor
B. cells are tightly connected to neighbor cells
EPITHELIAL TISSUES
this family of tissue is found on surfaces next to openness as
coverings (for external surfaces) or linings (for internal surfaces)
EPITHELIAL TISSUES
the tissue has an apical surface which is exposed and a basal surface, which is
bound to underlying connective tissue by a basement membrane
EPITHELIAL TISSUES
E. the basement membrane =
basal lamina (glycoproteins made by epithelia)
+
reticular lamina (glycoproteins + fine fibers made by C.T.)
F. epithelial tissues have no blood vessels (avascularity), but do have nerves (innervation)
EPITHELIAL TISSUES
if damaged, this sheet-like family of tissues can heal by mitosis
singular plural
EPITHELIAL TISSUES
layer complexity: __&__
simple or stratified
cell shape__&__&__
squamous or cuboidal or columnar
1. thin, flat, irregularly-shaped cells
2. sheet of tissue is thinnest sheet possible
3. usual function = filter or exchange membrane
Simple Squamous Epithelium
known as ___when found in capillary walls and lining larger blood vessels
ENDOTHELIUM
"filter" in kidney
Simple Squamous Epithelium
known as ___when found in pericardial, pleural and peritoneal membranes
MESOTHELIUM
alveoli of lungs
simple squamous epithilium
1. cells are square when cut top to bottom
2. cells are hexagonal when viewed from surface
3. usual function = secretion
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
specific locations:
a) most glands
b) surface of ovary
c) kidney tubules
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
1. cells are columns when cut top to bottom
2. occasional cells specialized to be GOBLET CELLS which produce mucus
3. usual function = complex absorption or secretion
Simple Columnar Epithelium
specific locations:
a) lining stomach
b) lining small intestine
c) lining Fallopian tubes
Simple Columnar Epithelium
specific locations:
a) surface of skin - see surface of figure 5.1
b) lining of oral cavity and esophagus --see figure 23.12
c) lining of vagina
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
1. surface cells are thin and flat (squamous)
2. lower layers of cells thicker (more cuboidal)
3. cells produced near basement membrane by mitosis and bump up .
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
4. usual function = protection against abrasion
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
1. surface layer of cells are dome-shaped and may have two nuclei
2. lower layers of cells are vary in shape between cuboidal and columnar
Transitional Epithelium
function = allows stretching
Transitional Epithelium
some specific locations:
a) lining of bladder and ureters
Transitional Epithelium
1. one layer thick with every cell touching the basement membrane
2. some cells tall and extend to surface; other cells appear more cuboidal
3. cilia "beat" and move secretions
Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
specific locations:
a) lining of most of the respiratory tract
Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
1. one layer thick with every cell touching the basement membrane
2. some cells tall and extend to surface; other cells appear more cuboidal
Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
most common function = air "conditioning"
Ciliated Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
originate from the embryonic tissue called MESENCHYME.
connective tissue
rich in extracellular matrix and contain fewer cells than epithelial
tissues
connective tissue
provide a nutritive bed for epithelial tissues
connective tissue
can heal by mitosis.
connective tissue
a non-living molecular product with which connective tissue
cells surround themselves.
matrix
Matrix has two components:
1. GROUND SUBSTANCE
2. FIBERS
a combo of protein + polysaccharide
proteoglycans
Fibers come in three common varieties ...
1) collagen fiber
2) elastic fiber
3) reticular fiber
a.k.a. white fiber
- tough, broad, high tensile strength
- commonly stain blue or pink
collagen fiber
a.k.a. yellow fiber
- resilient, narrow, stretchable
- commonly stain black
elastic fiber
so fine it is hard to see
reticular fiber
produce connective tissues proper
fibroblasts
produce cartilages
chondroblasts
produce bony (osseous) tissues
osteoblasts
produce blood
hemocytoblasts
“light-weight” connective tissues
Connective tissues proper
“heavy-weight” connective
tissues. They can hold body structures up and fight gravity.
Supportive connective tissues
main type of cell in an Areolar Connective Tissue
fibroblast "fiber-maker"
predominance of collagen fibers
Dense Fibrous Connective Tissue (White Fibrous Tissue)
bear pressure, yet resist abrasion and support soft
body parts
CARTILAGES
cells = chondrocytes found in spaces called lacunae.
CARTILAGES
avascular, cells get nutrients by diffusion from perichondrium
CARTILAGES
1] pearly, glass-like appearance, when fresh
2] matrix contains no visible fibers, although collagen protein is present
3] cells are found in round lacunae as singles or pairs
Hyaline Cartilage
specific locations: joints, nose, larynx, trachea, ribs
-functional design: smoothness, resilience under pressure
Hyaline Cartilage
specific locations - external ear, epiglottis, auditory tube
Elastic Cartilage
functional design - as with hyaline cartilage + highly flexible and
elastic,“boingy”
Elastic Cartilage
large amount of collagen, almost masking chondrocytes
Fibrocartilage
specific locations: intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis,menisci
Fibrocartilage
functional design - as with hyaline cartilage + reinforced
with collagen to be a “shock absorber”
Fibrocartilage