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77 Cards in this Set

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Several types of media are inoculated simultaneously with initial specimen.
battery of media
What are the three purposes of battery of media?
1. To culture all bacterial species present and to see if any predominate
2. To differentiate species by certain characteristic responses
3.To selectively encourage growth of interest will supressing the normal flora
What grams are staphylococcus and e. coli?
staph- gram pos
e. coli- gram neg
What does the BBL Jar do?
Makes things anaerobic.
What does the blood agar plate contain?
5% defibrinated sheep's blood, tryptic soy agar
Is blood agar plate basic or differential or selective?
basica and differential
In a BAP, if there is a green discoloration partial clearing around the colonies, what is occuring?
Alpha hemolysis
What is the zone of complete clearing of the blood around the colonies due to lysis of red blood cells?
Beta hemolysis
What is no change of media around colonies and no lysis of RBCS?
Gamma
What is manitol salt agar plate: selective, differential, or basic?
selective and differential
What does the MSA plate contain?
7.5% salt, carbohydrate-manitol
What media do halophiles grow on?
MSA
What selective microbe grows in the presence of 7.5% salt: MSA plate?
staphylococci
What differential microbe ferments mannitol resulting in production of acid?
staph aureus
What three microbes respond to blood agar plate in these ways: gamma, alpha, beta?
gamma-staph epi
s. pnuemo-alpha
st. pyogenes-beta
What is the key reaction in a manitol salt agar plate?
yellow reaction for staph aureus
What also grows on manitol salt agar, but does not produce acid?
staph epi
What does the MacConkey plate contain?
bile salt, crystal violet, lactose and neutral red
What type of organisms are inhibited by crystal violet and bile salts?
selective gram positives
What do differential microbes do to a MacConkey plate? What about non-fermenting lactose microbes?
turn it red to pink because they ferment lactose.
colorless and translucent
What does the MacConkey plate select for?
Gram negatives
What are the reasons for using the hectone plate?
GI problems- fecal pathogens
What color does the hectone plate turn if a normal fecal flora grows on it?
yellow orange-lactose fermenters
What color does the hectone plate turn if a possible pathogen grows on it?
blue green with black center
How does salmonella grow on the hektone?
blue or blue green with black center
How does shigella grow on the hektone?
blue-green colonies
What does the pea plate select for?
gram positives
What does the PEA plate contain?
5% sheep blood
On the Bile esculin slant, what has happened if it has turned black?
bacteria has hydrolyzed esculin resulting in black media
What is the type of bacteria that turns the BE Slant black?
Enterococcus faecalis
How does the BE slant show growth that was selectively grown?
their abilities to grow in bile
What has occurred when the citrate slant has turned blue?
Bacteria have used sodium citrate as their sole source of carbon
What can media never be?
Basic and selective- because they are opposites!
What disinfectant was the most effective?
lysol
What disinfectant was the least effective?
ethanol
Which bacteria was the hardest to inhibit?
gram positives
Which bacteria was the easiest to inhibit?
gram negatives
free
free
What can be used to distinguish different organisms?
fermentation of carbs
What are the end products of fermentation?
acid,alcohol,or gas
What is a small tube inverted in liquid growth media?
durham tube
What does the durham tube indicate?
Traps gas, proves fermentation has occured
What does phenol red do?
when acid is produced, a pink to yellow color turns out
What enzyme is present in bacteria that grow in the presence of oxygen?
catalase
What is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen?
catalase
What is the KEY test in distinguishing Staph positive from Strep negative?
catalase
What is the test that detects an enzyme produced by most strains of Staphylococcus aureus considered specific for this organism?
coagulase test
What does the coagulase test result in?
coagulation of rabbit plasma
What does the oxidase test test for?
cytochrome oxidase
What enzyme is part of the electron transport system?
cytochrome oxidase
What are the green, red, and white liquids used in the carbohydrate-durham tube test?
green-glucose
white-lactose
red-sucrose
What is put in broths to ID bacteria?
gram negative bacilli-enterobacteriacae
What three things can we learn for the nutrient broth tests?
Bacteria grow? Acid? Gas?
What is the control for testing for fermentation of acid- and what are the results if acid is present?
red broth -control
acid present- yellow orange
What will the nutrient broths have if growth is present?
acid or growth
What is anything that illicits an immune response stimulating the production of antibodies?
antigen
What is specific immunoglobulins produced in response to an antigenic challenge?
antibodies
Where are antibodies found?
blood, plasma, and body fluids
What can the serum globulins do?
1. bind and neutralize bacterial toxins
2. bind to surfaces of bacteria, viruses or parasites
What is the use of a known antibody or antigen to diagnose and define an infection agent?
immunologic identification
What is the forming of an insoluble immune complex by the cross linking of cells or particles?
agglutination
When does agglutination occur?
Occurs when you have homologous antigen and antibody present
What does agglutination serve as?
Evidence that a ag-ab reaction has occured.
What does Elisa stand for?
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
How can you visualize an antigen directly?
immunofluorescence which requires a special microscope
What is the test where a specific antibody tagged with a flourescing dye?
fluorescent antibody
When would you use a fluorsecent antibody?
id of viruses and parasistic diseases
What is the confirmatory test for HIV?
western blot
What is the test for id of specific antigens of the hiv virus by use of antibodies with known specificities?
western blot
What is the act of multiplying many thousand fold a minute an amount of virus antigen to where even the smallest amount can be detected?
polymerase chain reaction
How long do you incubate the APIE test for?
18-24 hours
What is the scoring based on in the APIE test?
color
What color on the apie test does it change when it's positive?
yellow
For the TDA slot, what color is the control versus positive?
control-yellow
positive-rusty gold brown
For the indol slot, what color is the control versus the positive?
control-red ring around meniscus
What color will the vp slot turn if positive?
pink or red
What will GEL slot look like if positive?
diffusion of black in whole cup