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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
define:
behaviorism
psychological approach that stresses rewards and punishment
macro sociological perspective
larger and more remote interaction
give examples of american values
hardwork, justice, freedom, equality, patronism, etc.
define:
Mechanical Solidarity
social relations that are based on simularities
(ex. language, culture, religion)
define:
game stage
children take the role of multiple others
who believed that social relations are determined by economic factors(conflict)?
Karl Marx
define:
reliability
findings are consistent with other studies in a field about the same thing
define:
concept
an abstraction communicated in worlds that stand for properties that are common to a range of things or events
correlation
degree of association
define:
values
ideas about what is good, right, or just
what are the four stages of socialization?
1. preparation stage
2. play stage
3. game stage
4. Adult stage
define:
subcultures
a small culture that exists within a large culture
(ex. hip hop culture)
define:
socialization
the lifelong process by wich people learn the values, norms, and roles of culture and thus develop their sense of self
define:
cultural bond
ethnic, racial, common interest (business), etc.
define:
opportunity culture theory
-community and socialization proccess that affects one's access to deviant behaviors
-drug dealers in community
-some say most deviant behaviors are spontaneous
father of conflict theory of sociology
Karl Marx
define:
variables
A measurement that varies according to what is measured
What is Cooley's looking glass self theory?
our self image results from how we interpret the way other people view us
define:
retreatism
reject both goals and means
define:
organic solidarity
social relations based on differences and independence
define:
functionalist theory of deviance
society is characterized by a high degree of consensus over norms and values. Deviance is anaberration that society seeks to eliminate.
define:
primary groups
emotional ties, face to face interaction, commitment
Micro sociological perspective
social interaction based on direct contact
define:
proletariat
work for wages
define:
Labeling theory of deviance
Deviant behavior results from the labels attached to behaviors by other people.
define:
hypothesis
theory driven idea about the world that can be tested against observation
define:
culture
beliefs, behaviors, and products (anything produced in society) common to members of a particular society
research model
y=x1+x2+......xn+E ex.-
Poverty=edu.+ unemploy.+e
y=dependent variable
x1, x2,...xn=independent variables
E=error term
define:
preparation stage
children start to relate to the world around them
3 famous sociolologists who wrote about social order
-Karl Marx
-Emily Durkenheim
-Max Weber
define:
Functionalism Theory
Each individual is assigned a role which they perform. Society has different roles.
define:
secondary group
larger and often impersonal and involves remote relationship
define:
play stage
children take the role of a particular other
define:
sociology
the study of human social relations, groups, and societies
define:
poverty
lack of resources/money
define:
deviant behavior
behaviors that violate social norms and values of the people in a particular culture
- not necessarily immoral, illegal, or wrong
(ex. spitting in public, murder)
define:
means of production
everything that's produced and needed for society
(ex. food,pencils)
what are four causes of poverty?
1. lack of education
2. family economic background
3. culture of poverty (attitude toward work)
4. unemployment
define:
innovation
accept goals but adopt innovative or different means
(ex. drug dealers, petty theft, embezzlement)
define:
the word 'me'
the image we believe others hold of us as we act
(the objective self)
Each part of the ____ ____ forms a function that works together to let the society/body function correctly
'human body'
Who believed that social relations were based on religious and economic beliefs?
Max Weber
define:
reference group
provide standard for judging one's behavior
-movie stars, advertisement
What are Merton's four types of deviance?
1. innovation
2. ritualism
3. rebellion
4. retreatism
define:
the word 'I'
the impulse to act creative, innovative, or unpredictable (the subjective self)
define:
Merton's structural strain
a form of deviance that occurs when a gap exists between the goals society sets for people and the means society provides for people to achieve these goals.
define:
Conflict Explanation of Deviance
Conflict believes society consists of different groups and social classes with conflicting interest values.
define:
countercultures
cultures that arise in opposition to the prevaiting culture ( happiness in the 60's, gay and lesbians in the 70's)
What are Erickson's 8 steps of socialization?
1. early infancy
2. later infancy
3. early chilhood
4. late childhood
5.adolescence
6. young adulthood
7. middle adulthood
8. late adulthood
Behaviors are learned and aquired from _____.
culture
define:
Adult stage
Individuals take the role of generalized others
Durkenheim
deviance serves the function of defining the normal boundaries
define:
rebellion
reject both goals and means of substitute for their own
(ex. counterculture)
Those who do not work are______.
deviant
(ex. alcoholics, mentally ill, handicapped)
define:
ritualism
reject goals and accept means
define:
material culture
all physical objects help shape the lifestyle of people in a particular society(ex. computer,cars,air conditioning,classroom)
define:
validity
concepts accurately represents claims