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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
thickening of joint capsule, connects bone to bone
ligament
connects muscle to bone
tendon
Range of motion
ROM
collection of fluid in a body cavity or space
Edema
collection of clotted blood in a confined space
Hematoma
discoloration of skin due to prescence of blood (bruise)
Ecchymosis
pain, redness, swelling, and loss of motion
inflammation
the prefix for "blood"
Hem
the prefix for "bone"
osteo
the prefix for "joint"
arthro
"cartilage"
chondro
"muscle"
myo
"itis"
inflammation
The skins consists of how many layers? their names?
two layers; epidermis & dermis
friction between 2 surfaces causes these
blister
friction one side with more friction (scrape)
abrasion
purposely done precision cut (usually done by professional)
incision
like incision, but with jagged or irregular edges (usually NOT done professionally)
laceration
when a "chunk" of tisue has been displaces/removed
avulsion
insect's stings, snake bites single object penetrates skin
puncture wound
two objects collide and compression related injury i.e. leads to ecchymosis
contusion
looking at the side of a human body the front is called
anterior
looking at the side of a human body the back is called
posterior
looking at a human body, the top half is called
superior/cranial
looking at a human body, the bottom half is called
inferior/caudal
looking at a human body, the part on the leg, arm or wherever farthest from the the heart is? closest?
distal; proximal
group formed by muscle and tendons
musculotendinous unit
term for when muscle is stretched beyond range of motion (ROM) injury to fibers
Strain
Inflammation of the tendon
Tendonitis
Inflammation of the muscle tendon sheath
tenosynovitis
formation of bone within the muscle
myositis ossificans
what causes myositis ossificans?
repetitive contusions, less often due to deep muscle strain
what is the fluid filled sac that helps to reduce friction between structures, located throuhgout body
bursa
when the bursa develops localized swelling
bursitis
when a joint is forced beyond normal anatomical limits. the ligaments and/or joint capsule is torn
sprain
partial or complete disassciation of the joint surfaces
-spontaneously returns to normal
-damage to joint worsens every time
joint sublaxation
disassociation of joint surfaces that result in deformity
-definite damage to joint structures
joint dislocation
hyaline cartilage that lines a bone's joint surface
articular cartilage
what does Osteocondral defect?
chunk is taken out (of cartilage*)
osteocondritis dissecans
articular cartilage is inflammed and disentigrating
general course of aging (normally occurs in 60s-70s
osteoarthritis
premature hardening and hardening of joints and get larger. due to articular cartilage wearing away and calcium (bone) builds up instead
rheumatoid arthritis (disease)
how are fractures classified?
-location
-magnitude of fx line
-shape & direction of fx
-duration of onset
when the osteoclastic activity is higher than the osteoblastic activity, chronic condition, changes in routine activity
stress fractures
the tearig away of ligament or tendon/muscle attachment at bone
-forceful, acute injury
avulsion fractures
compression of nerve by fluid or structures (Carpal Tunnel)
Entrapment
stretching of nerve that causes transient symptoms
neuropraxia
complete disruption of nerve
neurotmesis
-ionizing radiation penetrates tissues
-radiation is absorbed or dispersed
-which structure absorbs most radiation
radiograph: x-rays
assist in evaluation of ligament
stress x-rays
injected radio-opaque dyes are absorbed by tissues and appear on radiograph
-arthrograms, myelograms, angiograms
contrast imaging
-multiple radiographs taken that produce a 2-D image of tissue density (slices)
-most commonly used on brain
Computed Tomography (C.T.)
body is subjected to magnetic field and bombarded with radio waves
(best tool to determine specific pathogen)
-energy released by tissue is detected
-clearly portrays soft tissue, fluid, and bones
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
radioactive tracer injected into area and absorbed by osteoblastic/osteoclastic bone zones
-tracers emit darkened spot on image; only applicable to bones
bone scan
-measures sound wave reflextions
-creates 2-D image
-most commonly used in hearts, fetus, internal organs
ultrasonic imaging
refers to frequency with which specific injury occurs
-point toward risk factors that make a particular sport a high-risk endeavor for some
Epidemiology
what are some methods used to determine high risk sports?
injury surveys, injury trends, surfaces, equipment, and rule changes
What components does teh pre-participation physical examination consist of?
history, physical exam, diagnostic testing
The purpose of Pre-participation physical exams?
identifies at risk people
-key prophylactic tool
-decreases legal liability
what does the term "slipped capital femoral epiphysis?
-growth plate weakens during rapid skeletonl growth
-stress of body weight causes slippage
An avascular necrois on the femoral head. rest and surgery are most common options
legg-calve'-perthes disease
abnormal enlargement of tibial tuberosity
osgood schlatter
what are a few guidelines set forth about child safety in the wight room.
supervide b y well trained adult at all times; proper and safe equipment.
when a woman has an abscence of her menstual cycle
amenorrheea
decrease in bone mass and strenth
the menstrual cycle is absent
what are the key elements of the female triad?
-amenorrhea
-osteoporosis
-disordered eating
neurological disorder characterized by seizures, -athletic particion beneficial.
-no additional risk factors
-do not give food/drink or put objects in mouth
epilepsy
lack of insulin production or absorption
-no additional risk factors
-notify personnel and physician
-adjust insulin lvls accordingly
- hypoglycemia most common occurence during activity
Diabetes
-chronic condition that restricts airflow
-proper medications can control
-no limitations, if asthma is under control
-check with physician to get proper medications
asthma
-bronchial constriction that onloy occurs as result of exercise
-asthma like symptoms, but not asthma
-medication and changes in routine should control
-check with physician to get proper medication
-common in cold, dry air
-usually occurs in 1st 10 mins of exercise or in warmup
exercise induced asthma
-disorder of the collagen tissues
-high risk of aorta rupture or damage to heart valves
-must obtain physician clearance
-more common in african americans, arms longer than legs
Marfan Syndrome
-congenital Murmers
-myocarditis
-cardiomyopathy
-must get clearance from cardiologist to participate
-irregular blood flow that
heart abnormalities
-parental/peer pressures
-participation anxiety
-eating disorders
(anorexia/bulimia)
psychological risk factors
can psychological stress cause injury?
your immune system weakens and can lead to sickness
-less focused