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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where do renal arteries and veins enter the kidney?
at the hilus
What else enter at the hilus?
Blood vessels & ureter enter and exit hilus
What is the purpose of the renal capsule?
transparent membrane, maintains shape
What is the adipose capsule?
helps protect kidney from trauma
what is the renal fascia?
dense, irregular connective tissue that holds kidney against back body wall to reduce jarring
kidneys receive 25% of resting cardiac output from where?
renal arteries
Which capillaries promote where filtration occurs?
glomerular caps
which capillaries carry away reabsorbed substances from filtrate?
peritubular capillaries
What supplies nutrients to the medulla?
vasa recta
Which capillaries carry away reabsorbed substances from filtrate?
peritubular capillaries
What capillary carries nutrients to the medula?
vasa recta
What regulates blood flow & renal resistance by altering arterioles?
Sympathetic vasomotor nerves
What regulates blood flow & renal resistance by altering arterioles?
Sympathetic vasomotor nerves
What capillaries are formed between the afferent & efferent arterioles?
Glomerular capillaries
What gives rise to the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta?
Efferent arterioles
What maintains the shape of kidneys?
reticular tissue
What comes out of the interlobar arteries?
afferent arterioles
what gives rise to peritubular capillaries and vasa recta?
efferent arterioles
Whats bigger? Afferent or efferent arterioles?
What is the site of plasma filtration?
Renal corpuscle
What are partitions of the renal corpuscle? what are their functions?
glomerulus (capillaries where filtration occurs
glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule is double-walled epithelial cup that collects filtrate
Where do collecting ducts and papillary ducts drain urine to?
renal pelvis and ureter
What is 80-85% of nephrons?
cortical nephrons
Where do renal corpuscles lie?
in outer cortex
Where do loops of Henle lie?
mainly in the cortex
15-20% of nephrons are what?
juxtamedullary nephrons
What allows the excretion of dilute/concentrated urine?
Corpuscles close to medulla and loops of Henle extend into deepest medulla
What cells of the renal corpuscle cover capillaries to form visceral layer?
What cells of the renal corpuscle form parietal layer of capsule?
simple squamous
How do glomerular capillaries arise?
from afferent arteriole & form a ball before emptying into efferent arteriole
What is the structure in which afferent arteriole makes contact with ascending limb of loop of Henle
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
How do you increase the number of nephrons?
increasing kidney size
Can nephrons be replaced if injured?
How much must nephrons decline before dysfunction becomes evident?
What happens when you remove a kidney?
it enlarges until it can filter at 80% of normal rate of 2 kidneys
What are the three functions of Nephrons and collecting ducts?
glomerular filtration
tubular reabsorption
tubular secretion
This process has a portion of the blood plasma filtered into the kidney
glomerular filtration
In this process H2O & useful substances are reabsorbed into blood
tubular reabsorption
In this process wastes are removed from blood & secreted into urine
tubular secretion
In this type of filtration, the filtration fraction is 20% of plasma
48 Gallons/day and filtrate reabsorbed to 1-2 qt. urine; blood pressure produces this filtrate
glomerular filtration
Why is glomerular capillary BP is high ?
due to small size of efferent arteriole
What are the important functions of filtration membrane?
#1 Stops all cells and platelets
#2 Stops large plasma proteins
#3 Stops medium-sized proteins, not small ones
What maintains blood osmolarity?
What maintains blood osmolarity?
total pressure that promotes filtration
GBHP - (CHP + BCOP) = 10mm Hg
What is noted of ureters?
Where is the urinary bladder located?
it is posterior to the pubic symphysis
it is anterior to the vagina and inferior to the uterus in females
it is anterior to the rectum in males
How many mL can the urinary bladder hold?
700-800 mL
What is a trigone?
a smooth flat area bordered by 2 ureteral openings and one urethral opening
What does micturition mean?
When do stretch receptors signal spinal cord and brain?
when volume exceeds 200-400 mL
Where does the urethra pass in the female?
only the urogenital diaphragm
Where does the urethra in males pass?
prostate gland, urogenital diaphragm & penis (length varies; prostatic, membranous, and spongy urethra