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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Blood Flow through the kidneys
Renal Artery
Segmental Arteries
Interlobar Arteries
Arcuate Arteries
Interlobular Arteries
Afferent Arterioles
Glomerular capillaries
Efferent Arterioles
Peritubular Capillaries
Interlobular Veins
Arcuate Veins
Interlobar Veins
Renal Veins
The amount of filtrate formed in all the renal corpuscles of both kidneys each minute.
Glomerular Filtration Rate
(GFR)
Increased stretching of smooth muscle fibers in afferent arteriole walls due to increased blood pressure.
Major stimulus of Myogenic mechanism (Renal Autoregulation)
Stretched smooth muscle fibers contract, thereby narrowing the lumen of the afferent arterioles. Decreases GFR.
Mechanism and Site of Myogenic mechanism (Renal Autoregulation)
Rapid delivery of NA+ & Cl- to the macula densa due to high systemic blood pressure.
Major stimulus of Tubuloglomerular feedback (Renal Autoregulation)
Decreased release of nitric oxide (NO) by the juxtaglomerular apparatus causes constriction of afferent arterioles. Decreases GFR.
Mechanism & site of action for Tubuloglomerular feedback
Increase in level of activity of renal sympathetic nerves releases norepinephrine.
Major stimulus of Neural Regulation of GFR
Constriction of afferent arterioles through activation of alpha 1 receptors & increased release of renin. Decreases GFR.
Mechanism & site of action for Neural Regulation of GFR
Decreased blood volume or blood pressure stimulates production of angiotensin II.
Major stimulus of angiotensin II hormonal regulation.
Constriction of both afferent & efferent arterioles. Decreases GFR.
Mechanism & Site of Angiotensin II hormonal regulation.
Stretching of the atria of the heart stimulates secretion of ANP.
Major stimulus of Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (hormonal regulation of GFR)
Relaxation of mesangial cells in glomerulus increases capillary surface area available for filtration. Increases GFR.
Mechanism & Site for Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) (Hormonal Regulation)
Trigger of Hormonal Release:
Low blood volume or low blood pressure stimulates renin-induced production of this hormone

Hormonal Effect:
Increases reabsorption of NA+, other solutes, & water, which increases blood volume
Angiotensin II
Major Hormonal Release Trigger:
Increased Angiotensin II level & increased level of plasma K+ promote release of this hormone by the adrenal cortex.

Effect of this hormone:
Increases secretion of K+ and reabsorption of Na+, Cl-; increases reabsorption of water, which increases blood volume.
Aldosterone
Major Release Trigger for Hormone:
Increased osmolarity of extracellular fluid or decreased blood volume promote release of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland.

Effect of hormone
Increases facultative reabsorption of water, which decreases osmolarity of body fluids.
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
or
Vasopressin
Major Hormonal Trigger:
Stretching of atria of heart stimulates secretion of ANP.

Effect of Hormone:
Increases excretion of Na+ in urine (natriuresis); increases urine output (diuresis) & thus decreases blood volume.
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
1. Kidneys excrete wastes in urine, regulate blood volume & composition, help regulate BP, synthesize glucose, release erythropoietin, & participate in vitamin D synthesis

2. Ureters transport urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

3. Urinary bladder stores urine

4. Urethra discharges urine from the body.
Functions of the Urinary System
1. Regulating blood ionic composition
- Na(+) (Sodium)
- K(+) (Potassium)
- Ca(2+) (Calcium)
- Cl(-)(Chloride)
- HPO[4](2-) (Phosphate)

2. Regulating blood PH
- Excrete H(+) (Hydrogen)
- Conserve HCO[3](-) (Bicarbonate)

3. Regulate Blood Volume

4. Regulate Blood Pressure

5. Maintain blood osmolarity

6. Produce Hormones
- Calcitriol: regulate calcium homeostasis
- Erythropoietin: stimulate RBC production

7. Regulate blood glucose level

8. Excreting wastes & foreign substances
Functions of the Kidneys
An abnormal concentration of mineral salts; commonly called a stone
Calculus
plural calculi
A cup-like division of the renal pelvis.
Calyx

Calyces are subdivided
into major & minor calyces
Insertion of a tube (catheter) through the urethra into the urinary bladder to evacuate urine.
Catheterization
The science dealing with the structure & function of the kidney
Nephrology
The structural & functional unit of the kidney
Nephron
A small, nipple-like protuberance
Papilla
Pertaining to the kidney
Renal
A triangular area, especially that area at the base of the bladder
Trigone
The branch of medicine concerning the urinary tract in both sexes & the genital tract of the male
Urology
Filters the blood by removing various toxins, metabolic waste products, & some water. (xenotoxins)

Manufactures & excretes urine

Assists in regulation of water, electrolytes, & acid-base balance of the body

Influences blood pressure (Renin - hormone)
Functions of the Urinary System
A mass of fatty tissue in which each kidney and its vessels are embedded; hold kidneys in position.
Adipose Capsule
A sheath of fibrous tissue which surrounds the kidney & the adipose capsule; hold kidneys in position.
Renal Fascia
A depression on the medial or inner border where the arteries. veins, lymphatic vessels, nerves, ureter, & pelvis enter & leave the kidney.
Hilum
The funnel-shaped sac at the hilum
Renal Pelvis
Outer portion that contains secreting portion of the kidney
Cortex
cortical substance
Middle portion of the kidney containing renal pyramids which filter waste substances.
Medulla
medullary substance
Inner portion of the kidney which is small sac or basic-like cavity, having smaller cup-like cavities (calyces) into which the urine is collected before it is sent into the ureters.
Renal Pelvis
1. Physiological unit of the kidney
2. Approximately 1 million in each kidney
3. Resembles a tiny funnel with a very long convoluted stem.
4. Consists of a renal corpuscle & tubules
Nephron
Consists of proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, & collecting tubule.
Renal Tubules
Consists of glomerulus, a network of capillaries enclosed within Bowman's capsule
Renal Corpuscle
1. Nephron
2. Renal Corpuscles
3. Renal Tubules
4. Distal part of nephron is located in the cortex, & draws off & filters the liquid portion of the blood, removes liquid wastes (urine), & returns the usable portion to circulation
5. The proximal part of the nephron is located in the medulla, & collects the urine & channels it into the ureter.
Kidney Microscopic Structures
1. Secrete urine
2. Excrete urine
3. Regulate the fluid content of the blood by separating out the constituents of urine from the blood.
4. Influence blood pressure
5. Regulate the fluid content of the blood separating out the constituents of urine from the blood.
6. Regulate the concentration of the various salts circulating in the blood.
7. Extract foreign substances from the body, such as toxins, whether formed in the body or taken into the body from the outside
8. Regulate osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluid.
9. Regulate electrolyte & acid-based balance
Functions of the Kidneys
1. Excessive Mineral Salts (calcium, sodium)

2. Decrease in the amount of water

3. Excessively acidic or alkaline urine
Factors in the formation of
Calculi (stones) in the kidneys
Discharge of urine from the urinary bladder
Micturition
When the volume of the urine in the bladder exceeds 200-400 ml, pressure within the bladder increases considerably, & stretch receptors in its wall transmit impulses into the spinal cord. These impulses propagate to the _______ in the sacral spinal cord segments S2 & S3 & trigger a spinal reflex called the ________.
Micturition center
micturition reflex
Nerve impulses cause ____ of the detrusor muscle & ________ of the internal urethral sphincter muscles. Upon contraction of the bladder wall & relaxation of the sphincter, urination takes place.
contraction
relaxation
The male urethra consists of a deep _____ & a superficial ________. It is subdivided into 3 anatomical regions:
1. The ____ passes through the prostate.
2. The ___ (shortest portion) passes through the urogenital diaphragm
3. The ___ (longest portion) passes through the penis.
mucosa
muscularis

prostatic urethra
membranous urethra
spongy urethra
Prostatic urethra contains the openings from 1). ducts that transport secretions from the ___ and from 2) the ___ & ___, which deliver sperm into the urethra & provide secretions that both neutralize the acidity of the female reproductive tract & contribute to sperm motility & viability.
prostate
seminal vesicles
ductus (vas) deferens
The openings of the ducts of the ___ empty into the spongy urethra. They deliver an alkaline substance before ejaculation that neutralizes the acidity of the urethra. The glands also secrete mucus, which lubricates the end of the penis during sexual arousal. Throughout the urethra, but especially in the spongy urethra, the openings of the ducts of ___ discharge mucus during sexual arousal or ejaculation.
urethral (Littre) glands
3 divisions of the male urethra
Prostatic
Membranous
Cavernous
Division of the male urethra that passes vertically through the prostate gland.
Prostatic
Division of the male urethra that extends between the apex of the prostate & the bulb of urethra, passes through the pelvic walls, & is surrounded by the external sphincter muscle.
Membranous
Division of the male urethra that extends through the penis from the membranous to the urinary meatus.
Cavernous or Anterior
or Spongy
* A watery solution of waste products of metabolism
* amber or straw colored clear liquid
- color is from excreted bile pigments
* Slightly acidic with a pH of 5.5 to 6.5
- Average pH is 6.0
* Normal specific gravity is 1.015 to 1.025 (slightly heavier than water)
* Quantity excreted is dependent upon:
- Amt of water lost by evaporation through respiratory & cutaneous surfaces
- Amt of fluid intake
* Average quantity excreted in 24 hours: 1000cc to 1800cc
* Characteristic odor of ammonia after standing for a short period of time.
Physical characteristics
of Urine
1. water (95%)
2. Organic substances (protein waste products)
(a) Uric acid (b) Urea
(c) Creatinine (d) Ammonia
(e) Hormones
3. Inorganic Substances
(a) Sodium chloride (b) calcium
(c) Sulfates & phosphates
(d) Potassium (e) Magnesium
Normal constituents
of Urine
1. Glucose (glycosuria)
- 1 symptom of diabetes mellitus
2. Albumin (albuminuria)
3. Blood (hematuria)
4. Pus cells (pyuria)
5. Acetone (acetonuria)
Abnormal constituents
of Urine
For the average person, when there is ___ to ___ cc of urine in the bladder, the pressure on the bladder walls creates an impulse (message to CNS) to urinate.
200 to 250 cc
In the adult the act of voiding, although dependent on the ___ reflexes, is partly under ___ control.
involuntary
voluntary
Urination is accomplished by contraction of the bladder walls, & relaxation of the sphincter muscles at the junction of the ____ & the ____.
Urinary Bladder
Urethra
Involuntary Urination
Incontinence
The inability to void, but the bladder contains much urine & must by emptied (usually by catheterization).
Retention of Urine
The inability to void because the kidneys are not secreting any urine & the bladder is empty.
Suppression of Urine
Night time bed-wetting
Enuresis