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156 Cards in this Set

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In females with ____________, part or all of one X chromosome is missing:
Turner syndrome

They are typically short with a thick, webbed neck and are usually infertile due to a lack of normal ovaries; many have mild learning problems
According to DSM-IV-TR, in children, Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
is often manifested as excessive concern about performance or competence at school
A solution-focused therapist is working with a family whose conversations frequently escalate to intense arguments. The therapist will most likely:
ask the family members if they can remember a time when they were able to talk to each other for an extended period without arguing.

Solution-focused therapists use "exceptions" as one way of identifying possible solutions to the family's problem.
Statistics on the risk for suicide among adolescents from single-parent and dual-parent families show that:
girls and boys from single-parent families are both at higher risk than girls and boys from dual-parent families.

The linkage between a single-parent family and risk for a suicide in adolescents was recently confirmed in a large-scale study in Sweden, which compared 65,085 children from single-parent homes with 921,257 children from two-parent homes and found that the rate of suicide attempts was 2 times greater for girls from single-parent homes and 2.3 times greater for boys from single-parent homes
Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory distinguishes between three stages in gender identity development. The first stage is ________, which involves recognizing one's own gender and is ordinarily first apparent between 2 and 3 years of age:
gender identity

Children begin to identify themselves (and others) as either a boy or girl at 2 to 3 years of age. This is referred to as gender identity.

Gender stability is usually evident by 4 to 6 years of age.

Gender constancy does not develop until 6 to 7 years of age. (Gender conservation is an alternative term for gender constancy.)
Review of medical records and the "separation test" are recommended components of the forensic assessment for what disorder:
Factitious Disorder by Proxy involves "the deliberate production or feigning of physical or psychological signs or symptoms in another person who is under the individual’s care" (DSM-IV-TR, 2000, p. 781), with the victim often being a young child and the perpetrator the child’s mother. Inconsistencies or other abnormalities in the child’s medical record may be indicative of this disorder; and a separation test (separation of the child and mother) can help confirm the diagnosis if the child’s symptoms are alleviated during the separation.
In 1989, Abramson, Metalsky, and Alloy revised the 1978 reformulated theory of helplessness and depression. _________ is/are conceptualized as a proximal sufficient cause of depressive symptoms:
the presence of hopelessness is sufficient to cause depressive symptoms
The phenomenon known as "blocking" is most likely to occur in which the following circumstances:
CS(1) is presented several times prior to the US until a CR is established; then CS(1) and CS(2) are presented together several times prior to the US.

Blocking is most likely to occur when the connection between CS(1) and the US has been established before CS(1) and CS(2) are presented together. In this case, CS(2) apparently provides redundant information and, consequently, does not produce a CR
The goal of client-centered case consultation is to:
advise the consultee regarding the client’s treatment. This involves assessing the client’s condition or situation and then making a recommendation to the consultee regarding a course of action.
Weber’s law explains why:
you can be heard when you whisper in a very quiet room but must shout to be heard in a very loud, noisy room.

According to Weber’s law, the "just-noticeable difference" in a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the original stimulus. It explains why a whisper is audible in a quiet room but not in a very noisy room.
The MMSE (Mini Mental State Exam) is most often administered to:
older adults as a measure of cognitive functioning
A researcher investigating implicit memory will most likely use which of the following tasks:
word-stem completion

Of the tasks listed, this one is the only one used to assess implicit memory (the others are used to evaluate explicit memory). A researcher using a word-stem completion task presents the subject with the first few letters of a word and (e.g., SCH- _ _ _) asks him/her to complete a word that begins with those letters.
Implicit memory refers to:
memory that is effortless or automatic.
What measure of "effect size" (the magnitude of a treatment effect) indicates the amount of variability in an outcome measure accounted for by the effects of the treatment:
eta squared

Eta squared is the square of the correlation coefficient (i.e., the correlation between the treatment and the outcome) and is used as an index of effect size.

Know that "amount of variability accounted for" is assessed by a squared correlation coefficient.
The Record-Keeping Guidelines lists the information that must be included in a client's file.
Dates of services should be included. Releases also should be included. Information on types of services should be included in the client record.

The APA doesn't require a signed written consent but only that the consent be documented. (Note, however, that some states may require a signed written consent.)
In their meta-analysis of the research on the impact of flextime on job outcomes, Baltes et al. (1999) found that this schedule has the greatest impact on:
absenteeism
An examinee obtains a score of 70 on a test that has a mean of 80, a standard deviation of 15, and a standard error of measurement of 5. The 95% confidence interval for the examinee's score is:
60 to 80

This interval is closest to the 95% confidence interval and was obtained by multiplying the standard error by 2.0 (instead of 1.96) and adding and subtracting the result from the examinee's score of 70. The 95% confidence interval for an obtained test score is constructed by multiplying the standard error of measurement by 1.96 and adding and subtracting the result from the examinee's score.
For _____ of individuals with Parkinson's Disease who are depressed, the depression preceded the onset of motor and other physical symptoms:
about 20%
In the context of item response theory, item difficulty is defined:
by the probability that an examinee with a given level of the ability measured by the test will answer the item correctly.

An item is difficult when only examinees with very high levels of the attribute measured by the test can be expected to answer the item correctly at a high probability.
From the perspective of structural family therapy, a therapist's failure to __________ is likely to produce resistance among family members:
join the family

Minuchin considers joining to be a prerequisite for restructuring the family.
A parent yells at her 5-year-old son whenever he misbehaves. The boy quickly figures out that, if he apologizes for his misbehavior, his mother will stop yelling at him. Consequently, he begins to say, "I'm sorry" as soon as his mother starts yelling at him. The boy's apologizing is best described as the result of:
escape conditioning

In this situation, the boy doesn't entirely avoid his mother's yelling, but he does "escape" once it has started by apologizing.
Avoidance conditioning involves:
presenting a stimulus that signals that an aversive event is about to occur so that eventually the stimulus elicits a behavior that allows the individual to avoid the aversive event.
Recent research has found that women in which of the following groups have the highest lifetime rate of victimization by an intimate partner:
Tjaden and Thoennes report a lifetime rate for American Indians/Alaska Natives of 37.5%. They note that this higher rate for American Indian/Alaska Native women is consistent with previous research, but state that it is not clear whether the rate is actually due to more violent experiences or an increased willingness to report them.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is likely to have the most detrimental effect on which of the following WAIS-III factor indices:
Processing Speed

Although memory is affected by TBI, the Working Memory score tends to be less adversely affected than the Processing Speed score.
Recent research has found that, in terms of job outcomes, the compressed workweek has the least impact on:
objective measures of job performance

It did have impact on overall job satisfaction, satisfaction with work schedule and supervisor performance ratings
Several recent studies on the progression of HIV infection have evaluated the impact of demographic factors. With regard to age, these studies have most consistently found that, among adults:
older age is associated with a more rapid HIV disease progression
A researcher wants to investigate the effects of a brief treatment for a group of 10 therapy clients before and after the treatment is applied. She will measure symptom severity three times at regular intervals before administering the treatment to the clients and then three times at regular intervals after the clients complete the 10 sessions. The researcher is using which of the following research designs:
interrupted time-series design

Cook and Campbell (1979) refer to this type of design as an interrupted time series design. It is a single-group design in which the DV is measured at regular intervals before and after the treatment is applied.
"Criterion contamination" is most likely to be a problem when the measure of job performance:
is subjectively scored

A subjectively scored measure of job performance (criterion measure) is susceptible to a variety of rater biases, including the bias that produces criterion contamination.
When using structural equation modeling, the "fit" between the proposed causal model and the obtained data can be evaluating using the chi-square test for goodness-of-fit. However, one problem with using the chi-square test for this purpose is that:
it is very sensitive the sample size
The universal emotions identified by, for example, Ekman (1972) and Izard (1971) are:
happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, surprise, and contempt. People from diverse cultural backgrounds use very similar facial expressions to express these emotions.
Lawrence Kohlberg describes reasoning in his sixth (last) stage of moral development as involving consideration of universal ethical principles. In contrast, the last stage in Carol Gilligan’s model of moral development emphasizes:
avoiding harm to oneself and to others

Gilligan’s model describes moral development as progressing from care for self, care for others, to care for everyone including self.
A new job selection test with a validity coefficient of .30 will most likely improve decision-making accuracy when:
the job applicant pool is very large.

A predictor is most likely to increase decision-making accuracy when there are many applicants for each job.
Which of the following types of scores compares an examinee’s scores on several scales to his/her own performance or preferences:
ipsative

This question is describing a situation in which an individual’s performance on each scale is scored in terms of his/her relative status or performance on the scales. This type of scoring is referred to as ipsative.
The use of functional brain imaging techniques to study ADHD has linked its symptoms to lower-than-normal levels of metabolic activity in the:
prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia
Positive sx of Schizophrenia


Negative sx of Schizophrenia
Loosening of associations,
Catatonia, and Perceptual disturbances such as hallucinations and delusions

Neg sx include Avolition or the inability to initiate and persist in an action
As a method for treating migraine headaches, the goal of thermal biofeedback is to lower:
sympathetic nervous system arousal

he sympathetic nervous system is one of the branches of the autonomic nervous system. There is evidence that the effectiveness of temperature biofeedback for migraine headaches is due to reduced sympathetic nervous system arousal.
Two weeks after witnessing the murder of a co-worker, Mrs. Cee develops a number of symptoms including a sense of detachment, flashbacks of the event, sleep problems, impaired concentration, and an unwillingness to talk about the murder. She has had these symptoms for 7 days. The most likely diagnosis is:
Acute Stress Disorder

Because the duration of the woman's symptoms are less than one month, Acute Stress Disorder is the appropriate diagnosis.
Expectancy theory distinguishes between three types of beliefs that contribute to motivation:
expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
In the context of expectancy theory, "valence" refers to:
subjective worth of outcomes
Research evaluating the use of multi-component cognitive-behavioral therapy for rheumatoid arthritis has found that it:
improves psychological functioning and, in some cases, has a beneficial effect on pain intensity and joint inflammation
When the symptoms of Bipolar Disorder have not responded to lithium or valproate/divalproex, the next drug to try would most likely be:
carbamazepine

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) is an anti-seizure drug that has been found to be a useful treatment for patients with Bipolar Disorder who have not responded satisfactorily to other treatments or who cannot tolerate those treatments.
After assessing the psychological, social, and occupational functioning of a new client, Dr. Levy assigns the client a GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) score of 45. Most likely, this client:
has reported suicidal ideation and says he has only one friend that he talks with regularly
Which of the following accurately describes the utilization rates for mental health services among whites and African-Americans:
compared to whites, African-Americans have lower rates for outpatient mental health services but higher rates for public inpatient mental health services
According to Robert Sternberg’s triarchic model, intelligence consists of which of the following three components:
componential, experiential, and practical

These are the three components identified by Sternberg. The componential (analytical) aspect of Sternberg’s model includes the methods people use to process and analyze information; the experiential (creative) aspect refers to how people deal with unfamiliar tasks and circumstances; and the practical (contextual) component refers to how people respond to their environment.
The three components of intelligence identified by David Perkins.
Neural, experiential, and reflective
According to Berscheid and Walster's (1974) two-factor theory of love, love is the result of:
physiological arousal and a label for it.

Support for the two-factor theory is provided, for example, by a study showing that couples who participate in an exciting, arousing game together subsequently report stronger positive feelings toward one another than couples who participate in a more mundane activity. Berscheid and Walster conceptualize love as being similar to other emotions.
With regard to fees in forensic settings, the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists:
mandate that psychologists do not provide services to participants in a legal proceeding on the basis of "contingent fees"
The most common side effects of the benzodiazepines are:
drowsiness, dizziness, and sedation
The James-Lange theory of emotions emphasizes the role of:
visceral and muscular reactions
Vygotsky's sociocultural theory focuses on:
the impact of language (e.g., the internalization of dialogues with peers and adults) and social interactions on cognitive development.
W. Perry
Perry's research focused on changes in cognitive development from adolescence to early adulthood, and he distinguished between dualistic and relativistic thinking.
M. Rutter
best known for his work on risk and resilience.
E. Gibson's
Eleanor Gibson is best known for her studies on perceptual development in infants.
In contrast to most organic forms of amnesia, Dissociative Amnesia usually:
affects memory for events that occurred at the time of the trauma that precipitated the amnesia and for a circumscribed period following the trauma.

The DSM-IV-TR notes that Amnestic Disorder Due to a Brain Injury often involves both retrograde and anterograde amnesia (which is also true for many other forms of organic amnesia). In contrast, memory loss in Dissociative Amnesia is most often anterograde – i.e., it typically involves the trauma and, in some cases, other events that occurred during a circumscribed period following the trauma. Retrograde amnesia (loss of memory for events prior to the trauma) is rare in Dissociative Amnesia; and, when it occurs, the loss of past memories is often reversed through hypnosis.
Fathers of children who have received a diagnosis of ADHD:
tend to rate their children’s behaviors as less problematic than mothers do
A researcher would use which of the following techniques when her goal is to evaluate the cause-and-effect or predictive relationships between measured variables and latent factors:
structural equation modeling

Structural equation model is used to explore or confirm hypothesized relationships between both measured and latent variables.
Discriminant function analysis is used to:
classify people into criterion groups based on their scores or status on two or more predictors.
Cluster analysis is used to
identify homogeneous groups from a collection of observations (e.g., diagnostic groups from items measuring different symptoms).
The multitrait-multimethod matrix
is used to evaluate convergent and divergent validity.
As a diathesis-stress model, Beck’s cognitive theory predicts that which of the following serves as the diathesis in the development of depressive symptomology:
dysfunctional attitudes

Beck's cognitive diathesis-stress model of depression proposes that certain people have dysfunctional attitudes (depressogenic schemata) that make them vulnerable to experiencing depression when exposed to a negative life event.
Abramson, Metalsky, and Alloy’s (1989) hopelessness model of depression
Certain types of attributions – i.e., internal, stable, and global attributions – for negative outcomes are identified as the diathesis in Abramson, Metalsky, and Alloy’s (1989) hopelessness model of depression. Their theory is also a cognitive theory.

An example would be a a negative attributional style
One criticism of anger management training for children is that its positive effects are limited because:
it places too much emphasis on the individual (versus social) factors
__________ theory proposes that aggressive impulses "build up" inside an individual and must be released and that such release reduces the risk for future aggression:
Catharsis-aggression

One implication of the catharsis notion is that watching someone else engage in violence (e.g., watching a violent TV show) will lead to catharsis, which will then reduce the risk of aggressive behavior in the future. Catharsis-aggression theory has not been well-supported by the research.
The final stage in Cross's (1995) model of identity development for African-Americans is:
internalization-commitment

Cross's most recent version of his model distinguishes between five stages of identity development: pre-encounter, encounter, immersion-emersion, internalization, and internalization-commitment.

An African-American in this stage has developed a strong ethnic identity but has also resolved global anti-white sentiments and become more bicultural.
A licensed psychologist who provides individual and group therapy to adolescents and adults learns that she is HIV+. In terms of ethical requirements, the psychologist:
should refrain from initiating any professional activities that might be adversely affected by her medical condition
The tendency to seek or pay attention only to information that confirms our beliefs is referred to as:
the confirmation bias
The self-serving bias is:
the tendency to make attributions about oneself that maintain one’s self-esteem – e.g., to attribute positive outcomes to dispositional factors but negative outcomes to situational factors.
Belief perseverance is
the tendency to continue adhering to a belief even when the belief has been discredited.
Functional fixedness refers to:
the tendency to think of objects only in terms of their usual functions.
Left-right disorientation is ordinarily caused by
lesions in the left angular gyrus, which is located near the boundary between the parietal and temporal lobes.
Campbell and Stanley (1966) identify which of the following as a direct threat to a study’s external (versus internal) validity:
multiple treatment interference

Anything that threatens a study’s internal validity will also threaten its external validity, but this question is asking about a factor that threatens external validity only. Of the threats listed, only multiple treatment interference is listed by Campbell and Stanley as a direct threat to external validity.
In adults, the initial motor symptoms of Huntington’s disease most often involve:
rapid repetitive movements in the extremities and face
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder is more common in males than in females among those aged:
8 to 12

Because the onset of the disorder is earlier for males than for females, among children, OCD is more prevalent among boys than girls.
Longitudinal research by John M. Gottman and colleagues has linked criticism, defensiveness, contempt, and stonewalling to a high risk for:
divorce in the first seven years following marriage

Gottman and his colleagues have conducted longitudinal research investigating the interactions between married couples that predict divorce. They have found that the combination of criticism, defensiveness, contempt, and stonewalling (which they refer to as the "four horseman of the Apocalypse") is associated with a high risk for early divorce, while the suppression of both positive and negative affect predicts later divorce.
Sherif's (1965) social judgment theory implies that, before trying to persuade someone to your point of view, you should consider his/her:
categories of judgment

Sherif's theory distinguishes between three categories of judgment -- latitude of acceptance, latitude of non-commitment, and latitude of rejection. A person is most likely to be persuaded when a message is within his/her latitude of acceptance.
A rater is exhibiting the central tendency bias when:
he/she rates all ratees using the middle of a rating scale.
Severity error is another name for the strictness error (or bias) and refers to:
the tendency to rate all ratees using the low end of the rating scale.
contrast effect:
A rater is exhibiting a contrast effect when his/her ratings of a ratee are affected by ratings given to another ratee.
Reducing risk impact, reducing negative chain reactions, promoting self-esteem and self-efficacy, and providing opportunities are four techniques identified by __________ for promoting resiliency in high-risk children:
Rutter

Of the individuals listed, only Rutter is associated with work on risk and resiliency. He identified the four techniques for promoting resiliency
Huntington’s disease, Marfan’s syndrome, and Von Willebrand’s disease are due to:
an autosomal dominant gene

All three disorders are caused by an autosomal dominant gene, which means that they occur in the presence of only one gene on a chromosome that is not a sex (X or Y) chromosome
The research has found that individual therapy, group therapy, and family therapy are effective treatments for Bulimia Nervosa. With regard to individual therapy, the research has shown that:
cognitive-behavior therapy is superior to either interpersonal therapy or behavior therapy in terms of short-term effects, but cognitive-behavior therapy and interpersonal therapy are about equally effective in terms of long-term effects
A number of neuropsychologists interested in constructive memory have attempted to identify the areas of the brain that are involved in false recollections. Their research has most consistently linked false recollection to lesions in the:
frontal lobe
Which of the following is used as an index of inter-rater reliability:
percent agreement

Inter-reliability can be evaluated by correlating the scores assigned by two or more raters (e.g., the kappa statistic) or by calculating percent agreement.
Coefficient alpha is used to measure
internal consistency reliability.
Eta is a correlation coefficient that is used
when the relationship between variables is nonlinear.
An African American in the dissonance stage of Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's Minority Identity Development (MID) model will exhibit which of the following:
a conflict between self-appreciating and self-depreciating attitudes and between same-group appreciating and same-group depreciating attitudes.

Not surprisingly, a person in the dissonance stage (stage 2) will be conflicted about his/her attitudes.
The coefficient of stability is useful for:
assessing the reliability of a test that is administered on two different occasions to the same group of examinees

you need to know that the "coefficient of stability" is another name for test-retest reliability.

The coefficient of stability indicates the degree of consistency (reliability) of a test across time.
Group decisions tend to be better than decisions made by individuals when:
the group consists of members with complementary expertise
A(n) __________ would be most likely to agree that the basic structure of memory, attention, and other aspects of cognition are similar throughout the lifespan and that increasing complexity of these abilities during childhood are due to increases in capacity:
information processing theorist

As an example, according to information processing theorists (e.g., Case, 1985; Fischer, 1980), increases in abstract reasoning during adolescence are due to increases in the underlying capacities to attend to information and to hold information in memory.
Ecological systems theorists (e.g., Bronfenbrenner)
emphasize the impact of external factors on development.
Piaget viewed cognitive development as the result of
qualitative changes that occur as the consequence of biological maturation and interactions with the environment.
Vygotsky focused on the impact of ____________ factors in cognitive development.
sociocultural
The key requirements for successful mastery modeling are:
guided practice and early success

If you think about Bandura's research on participant modeling, you might recall that modeling is most effective when it involves guided and graded practice. The reason for graded practice (starting out with something easier and working toward more difficult responses) is that the individual will experience early success.
In his study of moral development, Kohlberg presented research participants with stories that posed a conflict between two moral dilemmas. In the most famous of these stories, the "________ dilemma," participants were presented with a choice between the value of obeying the law and the value of human life:
Heinz

The Heinz dilemma required research participants to reason about a dilemma in which a man must choose between not stealing a drug and stealing the drug to save his wife’s life.
According to Maslow’s need hierarchy theory, once a person’s physiological needs have been satisfied, that person will be motivated by his/her __________ needs:
safety

The five needs, in order, are: physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization. Need hierarchy theory predicts that physiological needs are the first needs to act as motivators; once they are satisfied, safety needs become the source of motivation; and so on.
The focus of self-in-relation theory is on:
the mutuality between mother and daughter
In Aaron Beck's cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpretations and assumptions underlying a client's problems are:
viewed as "testable hypotheses"

In Beck's cognitive-behavioral therapy, the therapist and client are co-investigators who approach the client's problems in a scientific manner. For example, the client's interpretations and assumptions are conceptualized and treated as testable hypotheses.
As described in the DSM, Personality Disorders are classified on a separate axis (Axis II) because:
coding them on a separate axis reduces the chance that they will be overlooked by clinicians.
A therapist who believes the therapeutic change process should focus on altering the client’s environment is adopting which of the following approaches:
alloplastic

Alloplastic refers to changing or adapting to the environment by effecting changes in the environment.
Autoplastic ("self-change") refers to
changing or adapting to the environment by altering one’s own behaviors or responses.
Adopting an emic perspective involves
focusing on the intrinsic distinctions that are meaningful to members of a particular culture or society.
Adopting an etic perspective involves focusing on
extrinsic distinctions that have meaning for the observer of the culture or society.
As a method for detecting the consequences of a traumatic brain injury, a standard EEG (electroencephalogram) is most useful for evaluating which of the following:
seizure activity

Research on the use of standard EEG as a diagnostic tool for traumatic brain injury has found that it is most effective for detecting seizure activity.
Prospective memory is the ability to
remember to do something in the future (e.g., to buy a gallon of milk the next time you go to the store).
Metamemory refers to
a person's insight into his/her own memory processes.
A partial seizure is characterized by:
a focal onset in one hemisphere of the brain with or without a loss of consciousness
_____________________ is a client-centered counseling approach that facilitates behavior change by helping clients explore and resolve their ambivalence about change:
Motivational interviewing

The description in this question is consistent with the description of motivational interviewing provided by its founders, S. Rollnick and W. Miller. According to these investigators, ambivalence is "the principal obstacle to be overcome in triggering change"
A needs assessment ordinarily consists of three components. These are:
job, person, and organizational analysis

A comprehensive needs assessment includes an analysis of the job requirements, the people performing the job, and the goals of the organization.
In factor analysis, "rotating" the factors has which of the following effects:
it changes the factor loadings for the variables and the eigenvalue for each factor
Structural equation modeling (SEM) is used to:
evaluate the causal (predictive) influences of multiple latent factors

This technique allows a researcher to identify the underlying (latent) factors that relate to a set of measured variables and the nature of the causal relationships between those factors.
Q-technique factor analysis
is used to identify types of people in a sample of people.
Cluster analysis is used to
identify homogeneous subgroups in a heterogeneous collection of observations.
Survival analysis is used to evaluate
the length of time to a critical event (e.g., relapse, promotion).
According to Margaret Mahler's object relations theory, the development of a sense of self is the result of a separation-individuation process that begins at about _____ months of age:
4 to 5

Separation-individuation is triggered by the child's ability to separate from his/her primary caregiver. The process begins at about 4 to 5 months of age when a child who being held by his/her caregiver is able to lean away to scan the environment.

Mahler distinguishes between two phases that contribute to the development of a unique sense of self: symbiosis and separation-individuation.
A primary assumption underlying the use of survey feedback as a method of organizational development is that:
in order for change to occur, employees must understand the organization’s current strengths and weaknesses

This is the primary assumption underlying the technique known as survey feedback. Consequently, it involves including employees in all steps of the process.
Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by mental retardation and extreme obesity. It is caused by which of the following chromosomal abnormalities:
a chromosomal deletion

Deletion occurs when part of a chromosome is missing. Prader-Willi syndrome and cru-du-chat are two disorders caused by a chromosomal deletion.
As originally defined by Tatum and Seevers (1931), "habituation" occurs when:
a person desires a drug but does not experience adverse effects when he/she discontinues it.

Tatum and Seevers used the term habituation as a substitute for "habit forming" and defined it as a condition that occurs when, as the result of drug use, a person desires it but suffers no adverse effects from discontinuing it.
Earlier statistics released by the Center for Disease Control consistently indicated that, among African-American males, those aged 25 to 44 were at the highest risk for suicide. However, more recent statistics, which report rates in terms of more precise age groups, indicate that the highest rate for these individuals is for those aged:
20 to 24 years
A researcher would use a multivariate analysis of variance to analyze the data she collects in an study when:
the study includes two or more dependent variables



The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) is a type of ANOVA that is used when a study includes two or more dependent variables.

When all dependent variables are measured on an interval or ratio scale, a researcher could use the MANOVA rather than separate ANOVAs to evaluate the effects of each of the dependent variables. Doing so helps reduce the experimentwise error rate.
An advantage of resperidone is that it:
is less likely to produce extrapyramidal side effects than traditional antipsychotics
In terms of assessing adolescents with psychotic symptoms, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry recommends the use of which of the following to confirm a diagnosis of Schizophrenia:
structured interviews, symptom scales, and diagnostic decision trees
HIV infection is often described in the literature in terms of three stages. The second stage is characterized by a strong immune system response and:
swollen glands but other few symptoms

The second (middle) stage lasts for about eight to ten years and involves few, if any, clinical symptoms. During this asymptomatic stage, the immune system in fighting the virus.
Which of the following best describes research findings on the impact of serotonin levels on eating behaviors in individuals with an Eating Disorder:
high levels of serotonin are believed to precipitate starvation in Anorexia while low levels are believed to precipitate binge eating in Bulimia

High levels of serotonin have been linked to both appetite suppression and anxiety. Reduced caloric intake by those with Anorexia apparently fosters a sense of calm and personal control by lowering serotonin levels. Low levels of serotonin have been linked to depression and apparently contribute to binge eating in Bulimia – i.e., binging on sweets and carbohydrates increases serotonin levels and thereby elevates mood.
Procedural memory is to declarative memory as:
skill is to fact

As its name implies, procedural memory contains memories for procedures – that is, perceptual, cognitive, and motor skills. Declarative memory (which is subdivided into semantic and episodic memory) contains memories for facts and events.
The correlation for IQ scores for biological siblings reared together is:
.45
An African-American adult in which stage of Cross’s (1991) Black Identity Development Model denigrates all aspects of white culture while idealizing all aspects of African-American culture:
immersion-emersion
Cross"s (1991) revised Nigrescence Identity Development Model predicts that an African American in the pre-encounter stage of identity development will:
exhibit either internalized racism or have low salience for race

These are the two patterns that Cross describes for the initial pre-encounter stage, which is the first stage in Cross"s model.
Klinefelter's syndrome is a genetic disorder that:
affects males and is caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome
Based on her study of preschoolers and their parents, Diana Baumrind (1967, 1971) concluded that children of __________ parents tend to be "conflicted-irritable":
authoritarian

Baumrind’s research linked authoritarian parenting with children who are "conflicted-irritable" – i.e., fearful, moody, easily annoyed, and aimless.
Baumrind found that children of permissive parents tend to be
"impulsive-aggressive."
Baumrind found that children of authoritative parents are most often
"energetic-friendly."
Longitudinal studies of individuals who receive a diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder in adolescence or early adulthood indicate that these individuals often exhibit a reduction or remission in symptoms over time. However, recovery varies for type of symptom, with _________ symptoms showing the least amount of improvement with increasing age:
affective

Longitudinal studies have found that, by middle age or sooner, most individuals with BPD no longer meet the diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The resolution of symptoms varies, however: For example, in a six-year prospective study of 290 patients with BPD, Zanarini et al. found that impulsive symptoms resolved most quickly, affective symptoms were the most chronic, and cognitive and interpersonal symptoms were intermediate in terms of resolution
According to John D. Krumboltz, career development and career choice are related primarily to:
social learning

Krumboltz's emphasis is on social learning -- i.e., modeling and other aspects of the social environment. His theory is referred to as the Social Learning Theory of Career Decision Making
Research investigating the effectiveness of treatments for Conduct Disorder has demonstrated that:
"boot camps" and "tough love" policies are less effective than parent management training and multisystems therapy

Boot camps and other inoculation techniques have not been found to be effective and, in some cases, may actually be injurious. Therefore, they are not recommended as a stand-alone treatment or as elements of a multimodal intervention.
Although the therapies classified as brief psychodynamic psychotherapies vary in terms of goals and processes, a general trend in the past 25 years for these therapies is:
a shift from an intrapsychic to an interpersonal focus
When using the Cleary (1968) model, test bias is evaluated by:
comparing the test's regression lines for members of different groups

According to the Cleary model, if a test has the same regression line for members of both groups, the test is not biased even it if has different means for the groups.
Berscheid's (1989) "emotion-in-relationship" model predicts that:
long-term partners are more likely than newly-weds to underestimate their emotional investment in a marital relationship

Disruptions in organized sequences of behavior (established behavior patterns) – and the resulting emotional response – are more likely in the early stages of a relationship than in its later stages.
Synesthesia is best conceptualized as:
a physical process in the brain



Synesthesia occurs when two or more senses are automatically and involuntarily joined so that stimulation of one sense automatically elicits another (e.g., the sound of a voice elicits a specific color).
In the context of exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the term "seroconversion" refers to:
the process of converting from antibody negative to antibody positive
The amino acid __________ is one of the most important inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain, and there is evidence that abnormalities in this neurotransmitter contribute to anxiety, sleep disorders, and seizures.
GABA
Vygotsky's approach to cognitive development has had the greatest influence on which of the following:
the reciprocal teaching method

Brown and Palinscar's (1989) reciprocal teaching method emphasizes the child's ability to learn from others and was strongly influenced by Vygotsky's approach to cognitive development
The use of shaping to establish a complex behavior depends on which of the following:
positive reinforcement

When using shaping to establish a new behavior, responses that come closer and closer to the desired behavior are successively reinforced.
In an experiment, a tone is presented to a dog just before meat powder is presented numerous times so that, eventually, the dog salivates when the tone is presented alone. Then a light and the tone are simultaneously presented just before the meat powder numerous times. Based on your knowledge of "blocking," you predict that the dog will subsequently:
continue to salivate in response to the tone but not salivate in response to the light
When using the technique known as "covert sensitization," a client:
imagines he/she is engaging in the target (undesirable) behavior and then imagines an aversive consequence for doing so

Covert sensitization uses counterconditioning in imagination (versus in vivo) in order to reduce or eliminate an undesirable behavior.
A supervisor administers a test on the material covered in a training program to employees who have just completed the program in order to assess its effectiveness. Six months later, the same supervisor rates the employees on their job performance and correlates the two sets of scores. She obtains a correlation coefficient of .65. Most likely, the magnitude of the coefficient has been biased by which of the following:
criterion contamination

When knowledge of a person's performance on the predictor affects how he/she is rated on the criterion, criterion contamination has occurred and is likely to inflate the criterion-related validity coefficient. A coefficient of .65 is relatively high and may reflect criterion contamination.
The "paired comparison" technique is:
a relative measure of job performance

When using the paired comparison technique, all employees are compared to each other in pairs for each dimension of job performance.
Research on the speed-accuracy tradeoff suggests that, when teaching complex motor skills that require both speed and accuracy for successful performance, the best strategy is to initially:
emphasize speed over accuracy
As described by Sue and Sue (1999), "playing it cool" and "Uncle Tom Syndrome" are:
survival mechanisms

laying it cool helps African-Americans conceal feelings that might be unacceptable to whites and that, if expressed, could lead to harm and exploitation. The Uncle Tom Syndrome refers to the use of passivity as a defense mechanism.
Virginia Satir's approach to family therapy emphasizes:
styles of communication
Smith, Glass, and Miller’s (1980) use of meta-analysis involved:
determining the average magnitude of the outcome of psychotherapy across a large number of outcome studies
Interpreting the defenses against anxiety that underlie a client’s current maladaptive behavior patterns would be of most interest to a practitioner of:
object relations therapy

As a psychodynamic therapy, object relations therapy utilizes many traditional psychodynamic strategies. It focuses on the impact of unconscious processes that impact the client’s current relationships and involves identifying and interpreting the client’s defenses and transferences. Object relations therapy is associated with several individuals including Melanie Klein.
Reality therapy
was developed by William Glasser. It focuses on current issues and current problems.
Solution focused therapy
was developed by Steve de Shazer and several other American strategic family therapists. It adopts a here-and-now orientation and focuses on identifying solutions to problems.
Personal construct therapy
was formulated by George Kelly. It combines cognitive, behavioral, and humanistic concepts and focuses on the impact of the individual’s perspective on his/her experience of the world.
Over the past four years, a 30-year old woman has had several physical complaints that apparently do not have a physical etiology. Her symptoms have included headaches, backaches, joint pain, discomfort during sexual intercourse, a lack of interest in sex, recurrent nausea and diarrhea, and coordination problems. These symptoms are most suggestive of:
Somatization Disorder

The woman has had 4 pain symptoms, 2 gastrointestinal symptoms, one sexual symptom, and one pseudoneurological symptom. The number, type, and duration of the woman's symptoms meet the diagnostic criteria for Somatization Disorder.
Major Depressive Disorder has been linked to all of the following sleep disturbances
decreased sleep continuity

decreased slow wave (non-REM) sleep

decreased sleep latency - earlier onset of REM sleep

early morning awakening