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131 Cards in this Set

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Individuals with Major Depressive Disorder often exhibit impairment in memory with:
deficits in recall memory being more pronounced than deficits in recognition memory
Kochanska's (1997) research suggests that, during the toddler years, the optimal parental behavior for ensuring the development of conscience in a child depends on the child's:
level of fearfulness

A number of researchers have found that fearful children score higher on measures of conscience, and Kochanska extended this finding by showing that the relationship between fearfulness and conscience development is affected by caregivers' socialization practices. Specifically, she found that, among fearful toddlers, conscience development is fostered when the mother uses "gentle discipline." In contrast, among fearless toddlers, conscience development depends more on a secure mother-child attachment and maternal responsiveness.
Dementia and pseudodementia (depression) are often difficult to distinguish when the depression involves prominent cognitive symptoms. One way is to observe:
People with pseudodementia are likely to exaggerate their cognitive problems, while those with Dementia tend to deny or minimize them.
What are symptoms of both Amphetamine Intoxication and Cocaine Intoxication:
pupillary dilation, nausea, and sweating

Amphetamine or Cocaine Intoxication may involve these symptoms as well as tachycardia or bradycardia, psychomotor agitation or retardation, muscle weakness, and confusion.
When treating a client with Bulimia Nervosa, the most effective approach is to include:
an antidepressant, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and family therapy

Antidepressants are not always necessary but have been found to not only alleviate depression (which often accompanies this disorder) but also to reduce binge eating and purging in many cases. Cognitive-behavior therapy has received considerable research support as an effective treatment for this disorder. Finally, there is some evidence that family therapy is useful, especially for adolescents or patients who are experiencing marital problems.
Propranolol hydrochloride (Inderal) is most likely to be prescribed for:
essential tremor
Research comparing the impact of unilateral brain damage on emotion has shown that damage to the right hemisphere is most often associated with three behavioral patterns – indifference, verbal disinhibition, and:
denial of paralysis or other symptoms resulting from the brain damage

In terms of emotions, damage to the right (nondominant) hemisphere has been linked to indifference and apathy, denial of one's disabilities, and verbal disinhibition (which often includes a tendency to joke in a sarcastic or childish manner, especially about one's disabilities).
Chomsky's position on language acquisition is best described as:
nativist

According to Chomsky, the capacity for language acquisition is due to an innate language acquisition device. His theory is classified as nativist.
Several neurotransmitter abnormalities have been linked to the anxiety disorders, but _________ and __________ have been most closely associated with Social Phobia.
serotonin and dopamine
Among African-American males, aged 15 to 24:
the rates of suicide are less than for white males of the same age, but the rates for both groups are increasing
In terms of alcohol use, recent surveys indicate that:
American Indians/Alaskan Natives between the ages of 12 to 17 are more likely to report drinking in the past month than individuals of the same age belonging to other racial/ethnic groups
Children's understanding of race as a physical, social, and biological category is usually first evident by age:
10

Although children show awareness of racial differences by age 3 or 4, a sophisticated understanding of race does not develop until later.
From a psychoanalytic perspective, a phobia is:
an externalization of a forbidden impulse
To evaluate the concurrent validity of a new selection test for salespeople, you would:
administer the test to a sample of current salespeople and correlate their scores on the test with their recently assigned performance ratings


Concurrent and predictive validity are types of criterion-related validity. To evaluate a test’s criterion-related validity, scores on the predictor (in this case, the selection test) are correlated with scores on a criterion (measure of job performance). When scores on both measures are obtained at about the same time, they provide information on the test’s concurrent validity.
The standard error of the mean, an index of sampling error, increases as:
the population standard deviation increases

As the population standard deviation increases, the chance of sampling error also increases. Knowing the formula for the standard error of the mean would have helped you choose the correct answer to this question – the standard error equals the population standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size. Thus, the standard error increases as the numerator increases or the denominator decreases.
For an object relations theorist, __________ refers to the assimilation of parts of an object as part of oneself:
introjection

Klein argued that introjection usually involved good objects and helped reduce anxiety but could also involve bad objects and was a way to gain control over them.
The primary target of "advocacy consultation" is best described as:
social change

a distinctive characteristic of advocacy consultation is that it is based on an "explicit value orientation that targets social change in the direction of power equalization" (p. 162).
"Dummy coding" is used:
so that categorical variables can be included in a multiple regression equation
To reduce or eliminate a child's tantrums, which of the following would probably be most effective:
negative punishment
The t-test for a single sample
is used to compare an obtained sample mean to a known population mean.
You conduct a research study to assess the effects of T.V. violence on aggressive behavior. You plan to observe sixteen children during recess for three days and calculate their average number of aggressive acts. You will then have all children observe aggressive T.V. programs for three hours and again observe the children during recess for three days and calculate their average number of aggressive acts. To analyze the data you collect, you will use which of the following:
The analysis will involve comparing two means obtained from the same group of subjects; i.e., the means are related and the t-test for related (correlated) samples is the appropriate test.
The chi-square is used
to compare nominal (frequency) data.
The one-way ANOVA is used
to compare two or more independent means.
An ongoing debate in the literature centers on a therapist's responsibility when working with a client who is HIV-positive and is engaging in risky sexual behavior. A central issue in this debate is:
foreseeability of harm

In discussing this topic, S. Knapp and L. VandeCreek, for example, note that three issues are involved in the duty to protect: a fiduciary relationship, an identifiable victim, and the foreseeability of harm. They note that the "issue of foreseeability creates the greatest problems with the duty to protect with HIV-positive patients because the research has not identified all the risk factors involved in HIV transmission"
Children ordinarily first notice racial differences in physical characteristics by _____ years of age:
By age 2, children become aware of gender and, soon thereafter, become aware of differences in skin color, hair color, eye shape, and other physical characteristics.
The administration of an antiandrogen as a treatment for a paraphilia:
is recommended as an adjunct to a behavioral or cognitive-behavioral intervention
"Criterion deficiency" is most likely to result in:
low validity

A criterion measure can have high reliability but low validity – i.e., it can give consistent results but measure only some aspects of the ultimate criterion.
The most commonly-prescribed drugs for Tourette's syndrome are drugs that:
Haloperidol is an antipsychotic drug that exerts its effects by blocking the transmission of dopamine. It has been found effective for alleviating the symptoms of Tourette's syndrome in about 70% of patients.
A family therapist using Minuchin's structural approach is most likely to be interested in which of the following:
boundaries

Minuchin considered maladaptive behavior to be the result of overly rigid or permeable boundaries between family members. Minuchin's structural family therapy focuses on the structural characteristics of the family.
According to DSM-IV-TR, for approximately 30 to 40% of the individuals with Mental Retardation seen in clinical settings, no clear cause can be identified. For those individuals for whom the etiology of the disorder is known, heredity is responsible in _____ of cases:
about 5%

Despite the large number of genetic conditions that have been linked with Mental Retardation, only about 5% of cases are due to hereditary factors. Included in this category are metabolic problems that are inherited through autosomal recessive mechanisms.
Many medical conditions can cause an anxiety disorder due to a general medical condition. Such conditions must be ruled out before a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder is made.

Conditions that generally precede anxiety disorders include:
Thyroid dysfunctions are associated with a number of psychiatric symptoms including anxiety and mood disorders.

Certain types of epilepsy are associated with anxiety and other psychiatric symptoms

Various types of malignancies are accompanied by recurrent anxiety.

However, Diabetes mellitus often involves symptoms of a mood disorder but is not typically associated with recurrent anxiety.
Most people seek EAP (employee assistance program) services:
on their own

Although little systematic research has been conducted to identify how and when employees decide to make use of an EAP, there is evidence that most employees do so on their own.
For Bowlby, an "internal working model" derives from:
early interpersonal interaction patterns

According to Bowlby, as the result of early attachment experiences, children develop an internal (mental) working model of relationships, which influences their future relationships. Knowing that John Bowlby is a leading figure in the field of attachment would have helped you pick the correct answer to this question.
In contrast to conventional antipsychotic drugs, the atypical drug, clozapine:
is more likely to alleviate symptoms of depression and hostility
A domain-referenced test is useful for:
determining an examinee's level of mastery in a particular domain

A domain- (content-) referenced interpretation indicates what proportion of the test items were answered correctly, thereby indicating an examinee's mastery of the content domain(s) sampled by the items. For example, on a 100-item math test, a score of 70% is a domain-referenced score. It indicates that the examinee answered 70 of the 100 items correctly.
The onset of bulimia often follows a period of moderate dieting, which has been linked to low blood levels of tryptophan. Low levels of tryptophan, in turn, are associated with:
lower-than-normal levels of brain serotonin

Tryptophan is a precursor of serotonin, and a rapid drop in plasma levels of tryptophan is known to precede a decrease in brain levels of tryptophan and serotonin.
The scoring and interpretation of Rorschach test responses ordinarily involves both quantitative and qualitative analyses. In terms of qualitative analysis, an examinee who makes a number of confabulatory responses has overgeneralized from a part of the inkblot to the whole. Such responses suggest which of the following:
brain damage, mental retardation, or emotional disturbance

As noted in the question, an examinee makes a confabulatory response (DW) when he/she overgeneralizes from a part of the inkblot to the whole inkblot; for example, "It looks like my father because of those eyes. My father had those same penetrating eyes." In this situation, the examinee has overgeneralized a detail of the inkblot ("penetrating eyes") so that the entire inkblot reminds him of his father.
Which of the following theories proposes that the development of gender-role identity involves recognizing what males and females are "supposed to do" in one’s own sociocultural environment and then adapting one’s behaviors and attitudes to fit those expectations:
Bem’s gender schema theory

Bem’s gender schema theory is classified as a social-cognitive approach because it emphasizes both social (especially sociocultural) factors and cognitive processes. According to this theory, children develop schemas about what is expected of them as girls or boys and then apply those schemas to their own behavior.
Inspection of an examinee's K-corrected MMPI-2 profile reveals that she obtained a T score of 65 or above on the majority of the clinical scales. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this profile:
the examinee has randomly selected true and false responses

random responding (or alternating true and false responses) produces high scores on most of the clinical scales along with a very high score on the F-scale.
A feeling of numbness or tingling in one's arms and legs is most associated with:
Panic Disorder

Panic Disorder often involves hyperventilation, which causes paresthesia (numbing, tingling, or other unusual skin sensations) in the extremities.
A client is acting in a passive-aggressive way toward a psychology intern who, in turn, becomes unconsciously passive-aggressive toward her supervisor. This is an example of:
parallel process

This type of mirroring is referred to as parallel process and is conceptualized as a reflection of the transference/countertransference process (which makes those responses only partially correct).
Classic migraine:
begins with an "aura"

The primary feature that distinguishes classic and common migraine is that only the former is preceded by an aura (e.g., a disturbance in the visual field).
The most common type of migraine
Common migraine is the most common type, occurring in more than 80% of cases.
Konrad Lorenz's (1957) research on "imprinting" in ducklings and goslings had the greatest impact on the study of ___________ in human infants:
attachment

The ethologist Lorenz found that certain birds become attached (bonded) to the first moving object they encounter during the first few days following birth. This finding led to a search for a similar "critical period" for attachment in humans.
From the perspective of Beck's cognitive therapy, the information processing of suicidal individuals is characterized by a high degree of hopelessness and:
dichotomous thinking

According to Beck, hopelessness and rigid, black-and-white thinking are the essential cognitive characteristics of suicidal individuals. Treatment, therefore, targets the individual's sense of hopelessness and dichotomous thinking.
When assessing a child who immigrated to the United States a few years ago, what would be the best way to consider cultural and language differences on the WISC-IV?
consider the degree of cultural loadings and linguistic demands of the subtests
When interpreting an examinee's responses to the Rorschach test, under- versus overincorporation. is used to assess:
reality testing
When interpreting an examinee's responses to the Rorschach test, form quality is used to assess:
Cognitive style
When interpreting an examinee's responses to the Rorschach test, responses related to human and animal movement is used to assess:
Coping resources

Interpersonal style is assessed by looking at the proportion of human versus animal responses.
A job applicant who scores below the cutoff on a selection test and is, therefore, not hired, but who would have actually obtained a satisfactory job performance rating if she had been hired, is best described as a:
false negative

A false negative is a person who has been classified by the predictor as a negative (i.e., doesn't have the target characteristic) but who actually does have the characteristic.
A true negative
is someone who has been identified by the predictor as not having the target characteristic and, in fact, doesn't have the characteristic.
A false positive
has been identified by the predictor as having the target characteristic but actually does not have the characteristic.
A true positive
is someone who has been identified by the predictor as having the target characteristic and, in fact, does have the characteristic.
The National Campaign on Teen Pregnancy (Kirby, 2001) recently concluded that which of the following has the strongest evidence of success for reducing teen pregnancy rates:
service learning programs

According to the NCTP, there is now evidence that some programs do, in fact, reduce pregnancy rates. These include service learning programs (e.g., Teen Outreach and Reach for Health Community Service Learning) and comprehensive multi-modal programs (i.e., the Children’s Aid Society-Carrera Program). Other authors have similarly concluded that multimodel programs that address a variety of developmental issues (including sexual behaviors) are most effective. Other programs – e.g., abstinence-only, school condom distribution, and community-wide programs – have not been found to have a substantial impact on pregnancy rates
After several sessions with her therapist, a client starts acting toward the therapist as though he were the client's father. Assuming that the therapist is a practitioner of Gestalt therapy, he is most likely to respond to this transference by:
helping the client see the difference between her transference and reality

In Gestalt therapy, when a client exhibits transference, the therapist helps the client "come to his senses" by enabling him to "see and experience in vivid concrete detail the discrepancies between transference fantasies and reality
Although some aspects of metamemory decline with increasing age, other aspects seem to be unaffected.

Research investigating the effects of increasing age on metamemory suggests that:
older adults are as proficient as younger adults at estimating their ability to recall information they have just studied
You've noticed that when you go to the dentist and are very anxious, the pain of the drill is much worse than when you're able to remain calm and relaxed. This phenomenon is best explained by which of the following:
gate control theory

Gate control theory suggests that the spinal cord contains a mechanism ("gate") that can block the transmission of pain to the brain. Apparently, negative emotional states serve to keep the gate open.
According to Gerald Patterson and his colleagues, which of the following is a key contributor to Conduct Disorder:
the parents’ childrearing skills

Patterson et al.’s "coercion hypothesis" focuses on interactions between parents and their children and identifies the parents’ childrearing skills as a key determinant of the nature of these interactions.
The presence of which of the following would suggest that the proper diagnosis is Social Phobia rather than Agoraphobia:
increased anxiety in feared situations when accompanied by a trusted companion

DSM-IV-TR notes that the effects of having a companion in anxiety-arousing situations can help distinguish the two disorders. In Agoraphobia, the presence of a trusted companion often alleviates anxiety. In Social Phobia, a companion can actually increase anxiety.
The occurrence of amphetamine-induced psychosis supports the link between _______ and Schizophrenia:
dopamine

Amphetamine psychosis and Schizophrenia share a number of symptoms. Because amphetamines are known to exert their effects on dopamine pathways, this similarity confirms that dopamine also plays a role in Schizophrenia.
Holland distinguishes between six personality/job environment types.

A person who scores high on
_____________ has scientific, mathematical, analytic, or scholarly interests or skills.
investigative
Holland distinguishes between six personality/job environment types.

A person who scores high on
_____________ has interests or skills in keeping records, organizing data, attending to detail, or following through on others' instructions.
conventional
Holland distinguishes between six personality/job environment types.

A person who scores high on
_____________ has interests or enjoys or does well in technical, physical, mechanical, and/or outdoor activities.
realistic
The differential diagnosis of depression and dementia in elderly individuals can be difficult since both disorders involve depressed mood and cognitive deficits. In terms of cognitive deficits, depression is the more likely diagnosis when:
free recall is impaired but recognition memory is relatively intact

The research suggests that one distinguishing feature between the two disorders is that depression is more likely to involve impairments in free recall, while dementia entails impairments in both free recall and recognition.
This is an example of a crossed relationship. It is the most conflicted type and is characterized by disharmony, fear, and "warfare."
Penny Pallid is an Anglo-American teacher and Cameron Chroma, her student, is African-American. According to Helms' interaction model, Ms. Pallid will be LEAST effective in teaching Cameron if she is in the __________ stage of racial identity development and Cameron is in the __________ stage.

reintegration; immersion
A client who is a member of a minority group expresses negative feelings about her own culture and positive feelings toward the dominant (Anglo) culture. From the perspective of Atkinson, Morten, and Sue's (1979) Minority Identity Model, this client is in which stage:
conformity - This stage is characterized by a preference for the dominant culture over one's own culture.

The Minority Identity Model distinguishes between five stages: conformity; dissonance; resistance and immersion; introspection; and synergistic articulation and awareness.
The Minority Identity Model distinguishes between five stages: conformity; dissonance; resistance and immersion; introspection; and synergistic articulation and awareness.

What stage is characterized by cultural conflict and confusion?
dissonance
he Minority Identity Model distinguishes between five stages: conformity; dissonance; resistance and immersion; introspection; and synergistic articulation and awareness.

What stage is marked by an active rejection of the dominant (Anglo) society and acceptance of one's own culture.
The immersion stage
According to Center for Disease Control statistics, among American Indians/Native Americans:
the rates for homicide and suicide are both higher than the national rates
The changes in cognitive flexibility, memory, and everyday behavior (e.g., loss of spontaneity and lack of initiative) that are characteristic of Parkinson's Disease lend support to the hypothesis that this disorder involves subcortical systems that influence the:
frontal lobes

A number of patients with Parkinson's Disease develop dementia, which is currently believed to be of the "subcortical type". There is some evidence that damage to these subcortical areas produces dementia because of their influence on the frontal cortex.
Structural family therapy entails three overlapping steps or stages. Which of the following techniques is/are most useful during the first step:
tracking and mimesis

Tracking (identifying and using the family’s values, life themes, etc.) and mimesis (adopting the family’s affective and behavioral style) are methods used to join the family system. Joining is the initial step in structural family therapy.
The three steps in structural family therapy are:
joining, evaluating/diagnosing, and restructuring.
Research on the development of depth perception in infants has shown that sensitivity to depth cues emerges in which of the following sequences (from first to last):
kinetic, binocular, pictorial

Babies are sensitive to kinetic cues (movement of objects closer to their eyes) as early as three weeks of age. Between 2 and 3 months of age, they begin to make use of binocular cues to judge the distance of objects. Finally, by about 7 months of age, babies perceive pictorial depth cues.
In the context of Freudian psychoanalysis, the goal of confrontation is to:
help the client see a behavior in a new way

When using confrontation, the therapist makes a statement or asks a question that connects the client's behavior to an unconscious motivation or conflict.
As defined by Salvador Minuchin, triangulation is:
a chronic boundary problem that serves a conflict-diffusing function

Minuchin describes several types of triangles that all serve to reduce conflict and stress – i.e., triangulation, detouring, and stable coalition.
The rotating shift is associated with a number of adverse consequences including fatigue, concentration, and performance errors. The negative effects can be reduced, however, when:
the rotation is clockwise and either rapid (every 3 days) or slow (every 3 weeks)

There is evidence that the rotating shift has fewer negative consequences when the rotation is clockwise (morning, afternoon, night) and is either rapid or slow. Weekly rotations are generally most detrimental because they do not allow resynchronization of circadian rhythms (which slow rotations do) and are long enough to allow for the build up of a sleep deficit (which fast rotations do not do).
According to Piaget, the key feature of the _______________ stage is the development of the "semiotic function":
preoperational

The semiotic function refers to the ability to use a symbol, object, or word to stand for something. The preoperational stage extends from ages 2 to 7. During this stage, thought becomes symbolic in form.
As you eat a hot fudge sundae, a friend describes what the sundae reminds him of in the most disgusting terms he can think of. Eventually, you cannot continue eating the sundae because it makes you feel sick. This situation is most similar to which of the following techniques:
covert sensitization

This situation is most similar to covert sensitization, a type of aversive conditioning in which the aversive stimulus is imagined. The goal of covert sensitization is to decrease a behavior.
paradoxical intention
involves imagining an exaggerated version of conditions surrounding a fear in order to eliminate the fear.
Moratorium
Moratorium is one of Marcia's stages. It is occurring, however, when the individual is experiencing an identity crisis and is not committed to an identity.
identity foreclosure
According to Marcia, identity foreclosure is occurring when an adolescent is committed to an identity (e.g., a career goal) that was formulated by a parent or other influential person rather than as the outcome of an identity crisis.
Our peripheral vision is mediated by the:
anterior occipital lobe

Peripheral vision is mediated by the anterior occipital lobe, while central vision is mediated by the posterior occipital lobe.
The effectiveness of clomipramine in alleviating symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and trichotillomania suggests that these disorders are due to:
a shortage of serotonin

Clomipramine is a tricyclic antidepressant that has been found to be an effective treatment for OCD. Clomipramine is believed to exert its effects by blocking the reuptake of serotonin from synaptic clefts.
A flexible benefit plan
A flexible benefit plan (also known as a cafeteria benefit plan) gives employees greater control over and flexibility in the benefits they received. It does not tie rewards to performance.
incentive plans in organizations:
based on the assumption that workers will be more productive if their pay and other rewards are a function of their actual output rather than the time they spend on the job.

When using a piecework plan, workers are paid for each unit they produce. Merit pay is a type of incentive plan for mangers. It entails adding money to the manager's base pay on the basis of his/her performance. Gain-sharing is also an incentive plan. It involves rewarding employees on the basis of the gains in organizational profits.
To detect changes in regional cerebral blood flow to facilitate diagnoses of certain brain-impairing conditions, which of the following would be most useful:
PET and fMRI

PET (positron emission tomography) and fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) are functional techniques.
A depressive attributional style is characterized by attributions that emphasize:
internal, stable, and global factors

From the perspective of attribution theory, attributional style is a personality trait that mediates between negative events and depression. Depression results when negative events are attributed to internal, stable, and global factors.
A school develops an intervention that involves having fifth graders who excel in math assist third and fourth graders who are having problems in math. The older students will model appropriate arithmetic problem solving and provide the younger students with cues and support. This is an example of:
scaffolding

Scaffolding was originally described by Vygotsky. It occurs when an adult or more experienced child provides instruction in the child's "zone of proximal development."
Research conducted by Mamie and Kenneth Clark in the 1940s led to their conclusion that:
for young black children, recognition of their race is linked to low self-esteem

The results of the Clarks' research helped the NAACP win the Brown v. Board of Education case, which led to the banning of school segregation.
The failure to take into account the prior probability of an event when considering its current probability is referred to as:
the base-rate fallacy

The base-rate fallacy is the failure to take the base rate into account when making decisions or forming attitudes. An example of the base-rate fallacy is the tendency of people to be more afraid of flying than of driving a car despite the fact that more people are killed on the road than in the sky.
According to Gyorgy Gergely (1994), visual feature representation is a necessary precondition for:
mirror self-recognition

According to G. Gergely, the ability to recognize oneself in the mirror (which occurs between 1-1/2 and 2 years in humans) requires a certain level of cognitive development. One cognitive prerequisite is the construction of "a visual feature representation of the typical physical appearance of the not-directly-visible parts of … [the] body"
As defined by Donald Super, "career maturity":
refers to the individual's mastery of tasks at each developmental stage

Each stage involves a set of developmental tasks, and mastery of those tasks represents career maturity. Career maturity prepares the individual to fulfill the life roles characteristic of the stage the person is in as well as for the tasks of the subsequent stage.
Super's life space/life span theory includes a stage theory that encompasses the entire lifespan. The five stages are:
growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and disengagement.
By three to four months of age, infants express, through facial expression:
startle, interest, disgust, and distress

By 3 to 4 months of age, infants express these four emotions. Anger and joy do not emerge until 5 to 6 months; fear and shyness after 6 months.
An elderly client displays paranoid ideation. In addition to providing a safe, stable environment, treatment for this client would most likely include which of the following:
a phenothiazine

Paranoid reactions in the elderly are best treated by correcting sensory deficits, providing a stable, friendly environment, and administering small doses of a major tranquilizer (e.g., a phenothiazine).
The most likely side effects of propranolol (Inderal) are:
Propranolol is a beta-blocker. Beta-blockers have been used to treat several medical conditions including hypertension and irregular heartbeat. They have also been found useful for reducing the physical symptoms of anxiety.

The side effects of propranolol (Inderal), which are often transient, include bradycardia, depression (as manifested by insomnia, lassitude and fatigue), nausea and vomiting, and light-headedness.
A female client says she frequently misperceives things and this has made her anxious about leaving home. For example, she often thinks she sees small animals at work when, in fact, the "animals" are actually inanimate objects such as books, coffee mugs, and office supplies. The woman's misperceptions are best described as:
illusions

An illusion is a misperception of reality (e.g., misperceiving a coffee mug as a rodent).
A delusion
is a false belief about reality that is firmly held regardless of evidence to the contrary.
hallucination
is a sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus. If a women is "misperceiving things," this suggests she is experiencing illusions rather than hallucinations.
Derealization
is an alteration in the sense of self -- i.e., the sense that one is detached from one's mind or body.
When recommending a treatment regimen for a client with migraine headaches, it is important to keep in mind that:
a combination of thermal biofeedback and autogenic training is considered effective although the research has not conclusively demonstrated that the combined treatment is superior to either thermal biofeedback or autogenic training alone
When using second-order conditioning to establish a new conditioned response:
the second conditioned response will not be as strong as the first conditioned response

The further the stimulus is from the original US, the less in magnitude the CR. In other words, the first CR will be less in magnitude than the original UR, and the second CR will, in turn, be less in magnitude than the first CR.
The MMPI-2's F scale:
includes items that are infrequently endorsed by "normals"

An extremely high score on the F scale indicates carelessness in responding or a deliberate attempt to "fake bad."
The MMPI-2's K scale:
is used to correct scores on several clinical scales
The MMPI-2's L scale
includes items that apply to or describe the majority of people
The MMPI-2's TRIN and VRIN scales
is a measure of response consistency
To use two or more categorical variables to predict status on a single categorical variable, you would use which of the following:
logit analysis
Path analysis is used:
to test hypotheses about the causal relationships among three or more variables.
Canonical correlation is used:
when there are multiple IVs and multiple DVs that are all measured on a continuous scale.
In comparison to tricyclic antidepressants, fluoxetine and other SSRIs:
are less likely to cause cognitive impairments
The point biserial coefficient is used when:
one variable is continuous and the other is a true dichotomy. (In this case, treatment length is a true dichotomy because subjects receive either a 12-week or a 16-week program. It would be an artificial dichotomy if subjects received programs of different lengths and it was decided to put all subjects who received 12 weeks or less in one group and 13 weeks or more in another group.)
When working with American Indian/Alaskan Native clients, an effective intervention would combine coordination with traditional healers (if appropriate), incorporation of members of the extended family, and a(n):
combination of client-centered and behavioral approaches
Helms's six identity statuses are:
contact, disintegration, reintegration, pseudo-independence, immersion/emersion, and autonomy.
You want to use several predictors to classify people into one of two groups. The relationships between the predictors and the criterion violate the multivariate assumption of normality. Consequently, the best technique is:
logistic regression

In this situation, there are two or more predictors and one dichotomous criterion. In addition, the assumption of normality has been violated.
Research conducted in the 1930s found that ablation of the anterior temporal lobes in male rhesus monkeys produced a variety of symptoms including hypersexuality, placidity, oral tendencies, and psychic blindness. This condition is known as:
Kluver-Bucy syndrome
Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) notion of __________ predicts a tendency for a loss of a particular magnitude to seem more aversive to an individual than a gain of the same magnitude seems attractive:
loss aversion

According to Kahneman and Tversky's notion of loss aversion, people experience losses more intensely than gains of the same magnitude and, consequently, are unlikely to take risks.
Gain/loss theory predicts
that a complement will be valued more by a person when it comes from a critic than from someone who has bestowed compliments in the past.
Investigators have identified "five robust dimensions" of personality that appear to underlie all others: extraversion vs. introversion; agreeableness; conscientiousness; emotional stability; and openness to experience. Of these, which is most predictive of performance for all types of jobs and all types of performance measures:
conscientiousness

As predicted, conscientiousness was found to be a valid predictor for jobs ranging from professional to semiskilled.
Fagan's Test of Infant Intelligence has been found to be a better predictor of later cognitive ability than traditional infant tests. Most likely this is because Fagan's Test:
measures recognition memory

Measures of attention, habituation, and recognition memory have been found to be fairly good predictors of future cognitive ability.
Traditional infant tests, which are not good predictors, focus on sensorimotor skills.
A patient with Broca's aphasia would be most likely to exhibit:
intense anxiety and depression

Patients with Broca's aphasia sometimes exhibit anxiety and depression, while those with Wernicke's aphasia are more likely to exhibit indifference and paranoia.
Complete or almost complete loss of movement is referred to as:
akinesia
Athetosis
refers to slow, uncoordinated, and involuntary movements of the extremities.
Atonia
lack of muscle tone.
Akathisia
is an inability to sit or stand motionless along with a feeling of restlessness.
To help a depressed client identify the cognitive errors and distortions that are affecting her interpretation of current life events, a practitioner of Beck's cognitive therapy would:
make use of Socratic questioning
According to Herzberg's "two-factor theory":
job motivation increases as job responsibility and autonomy increase

According to Herzberg, job-related factors can be divided into two types: hygiene (job context) factors and motivator (job content) factors. Only the second can affect satisfaction and motivation; i.e., providing workers with jobs that are high in responsibility, challenge, and autonomy will result in satisfied and motivated workers. (The presence of hygiene factors only ensures that workers are not DISSATISFIED.)
Recent surveys suggest that an employee's mental and physical health is most related to:
job security
According to Fiedler's (1984) contingency theory of leadership, task-oriented leaders are most effective when the work situation is _______________ with regard to the leader's sense of certainty, predictability, and control over his/her employees:
very high or very low in favorableness

Fiedler's theory distinguishes between low-LPC (task-oriented) and high-LPC (person-oriented) leaders. Fiedler concluded that low-LPC leaders are most effective in extreme situations, i.e., in situations that are very high or very low in favorableness.
The primary purpose of "informed consent" is best defined as:
providing a client with the information needed to make a reasonable decision about the services offered.

The goal of an informed consent is to protect the recipient of psychological services (or subjects in research studies) by providing them with the information they need to make an informed decision about whether or not to participate.
The primary function of the psychology licensing board is best described by which of the following:
establishment of minimal standards of competence

Although the various state boards have different requirements for licensure, they all set the minimum requirements for licensure. State licensing boards establish and monitor entry-level qualifications required to offer services to the public for a fee under the title "psychologist"; by doing so, the boards helps ensure competence.
___________ is characterized by intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors that involve touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person:
Frotteurism