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104 Cards in this Set

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According to Maslow's theory of motivation, when a person's prepotent need is ungratified:
the ungratified need continues to be a primary motivator

According to Maslow, an ungratified need is the primary source of motivation.
A potential difficulty with Holland's theory of vocational choice is that, in terms of cross-cultural vocational counseling, it:
doesn't take into account the possibility that certain occupational environments may not be available to members of minority groups
Lewinsohn’s behavioral model attributes depression to:
a low rate of response-contingent reinforcement

Lewinsohn described depression as being primarily the result of a low rate of response-contingent reinforcement. According to his model, when a person’s behaviors – for instance, attempts to interact with family members and co-workers – are not reinforced those behaviors are extinguished. Lewinsohn also proposed that, in addition to eliminating or reducing certain behaviors, a low rate of response-contingent reinforcement elicits pessimism, low self-esteem, and other symptoms that are associated with depression.
Which of the following best describes the impact of pay on motivation from the perspective of equity theory:
an employee's perception about the fairness of pay is more important than the absolute amount of pay
The SCAD profile on the WAIS-III is most useful as an evaluation tool for which of the following disorders:
ADHD

Scores on the tests that comprise the SCAD profile are useful for assessing individuals who are believed to have ADHD or a Learning Disability. The SCAD profile consists of scores on the Symbol Search, Digit Symbol Coding, Arithmetic, and Digit Span subtests.
It is important when choosing a treatment approach for a client belonging to a particular ethnic or other minority group to remember that individuals belonging to the same group exhibit diverse characteristics. However, research does suggest that, overall, Asian and Asian-American clients prefer:
a directive, structured counseling approach
As described by Beck, automatic thoughts involve:
interpreting experiences in patterned, reflexive ways

As their name implies, automatic thoughts are automatic or reflexive. They also usually have an interpretive component (e.g., "this is awful").
A young man experiences his first episode of Major Depressive Disorder in his mid-20s. If he does not obtain treatment for his depression, it is MOST likely that:
his symptoms will remit within three to six months and they may or may not return in the future
A 33-year-old man tells his therapist that, since his involvement in a serious car accident two months ago, he has been feeling sad every day; has had no appetite; feels tired all of the time and sleeps for 10 to 12 hours each night; isn’t interested in spending time with his friends and family; and feels guilty about the accident, even though it wasn’t his fault. He also says that, because he’s having trouble concentrating at work and getting to work on time, he’s afraid he’s going to be fired. Based on these symptoms, the appropriate diagnosis for this man is:
Major Depressive Disorder

The nature, number, and duration of the man’s symptoms are consistent with a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder: He is experiencing a depressed mood and has at least five other characteristic symptoms of this disorder; his symptoms have lasted for more than two weeks; and he is experiencing impaired occupational functioning as the result of his symptoms.
Amato and Keith's (1991) meta-analysis of the divorce outcome literature found that divorce has the strongest negative impact on children's:
conduct

The largest effect size reported by Amato and Keith was for the father-child relationship (-.26). The next largest (-.23) was for conduct problems (misbehavior, aggression, delinquency).
A family therapist whose techniques are derived from the work of Murray Bowen would most likely view the Schizophrenia of a family member as the result of:
a multigenerational
transmission process

According to Bowen, Schizophrenia and other severe mental disorders require several generations to develop.
According to DSM-IV-TR, reports of the lifetime prevalence of Bipolar I Disorder range from:
.4 to 1.6%
To assess the effects of a behavioral treatment for reducing test anxiety, you advertise the study in a university newspaper and then assign the first 30 respondents to the experimental (treatment) group and the second 30 respondents to the control (no treatment) group. You compare the test anxiety of subjects in the two groups just prior to final exams and find that the groups have significantly different levels of test anxiety. The biggest threat to this study's internal validity is:
selection

Selection is a potential problem whenever subjects are not randomly assigned to groups. In this study, the first 30 volunteers could differ in an important way from the second 30 volunteers, and this difference could confound the results of the study.
In terms of item response theory, the slope (steepness) of the item response curve indicates the item's:
discriminability

The steeper the slope of the item response curve, the better its ability to discriminate between examinees who are high and low on the characteristic being measured.
For a client or former client to successfully bring a charge of malpractice against a psychologist, he/she must show that:
the psychologist's actions were the cause of a demonstrable injury.

Some experts describe malpractice in terms of four basic elements: The psychologist must owe a duty of care to the plaintiff; there must have been a breach of that duty; the breach must have led to demonstrable injury; and the psychologist's acts must have been the cause of that injury.
The gradual decline in the intensity, frequency, or duration of a response to the repeated presentation of the same stimulus is called:
habituation
The cyclic release of gonadotrophins in females is the result of regulation by the:
hypothalamus

The gonadotrophins are released by the pituitary gland as the result of signals from the hypothalamus. The gonadotrophins stimulate the gonads to release their hormones (estrogen in females, androgens in males).
The hypothalamus responds to existing hormone levels and triggers messages that regulate the female hormonal cycle.
Projective identification
Klein introduced the notion of projective identification and defined it as a mechanism that is revealed in fantasies in which the subject inserts the self (in part or whole) into the object in order to possess or control the object. It can be considered a type of projection.

Projective identification underlies a number of pathological conditions and is responsible for severe difficulties in establishing one's own identity and in feeling secure enough to establish relationships with others.
A person is exhibiting a ____________ when she tends to pay more attention to messages and experiences that support her view on a controversial issue while ignoring those that discredit her view:
confirmation bias
According to the Elaboration Likelihood model:
persuasion via the peripheral route is more likely when the listener is uninvolved with the message and the communicator is appealing.

When a listener is uninvolved with the message or is distracted, the communicator is appealing, and/or the message appeals to fear, the listener is more susceptible to persuasion via the peripheral route.
Your research study involves assessing the effects of two independent variables on three dependent variables. In this situation, you would choose to conduct a MANOVA to analyze the data you collect rather than separate factorial ANOVAs in order to:
control the experiment wise error rate
"Criterion deficiency" refers to:
the degree to which the conceptual criterion is not measured by the actual criterion
To construct the 68% confidence interval for an examinee's obtained test score, you would need the examinee's score and:
the standard error of measurement

To construct a 68% confidence interval, you add and subtract one standard error of measurement to and from the examinee's obtained test score.
Paralanguage, one of the characteristics of communication identified by Sue and Sue (2003) as being influenced by culture, refers to the use of:
loudness of voice, silence, rate of speech, and other vocal cues.

Paralanguage refers to the vocal cues (other than language itself) that are used to communicate meaning.
Proxemics
refers to the personal and interpersonal use of space.
Kinesics
refers to the use of bodily movements as means of communication.
Research investigating the impact of group heterogeneity and task performance has generally found that:
group heterogeneity is preferable on disjunctive tasks but can actually be detrimental on some other types of tasks.

Groups that are heterogeneous with regard to members' skills, experience, and other characteristics have been found to be particularly beneficial for disjunctive tasks in which only one member needs to identify the correct response or solution.

Heterogeneity can actually be detrimental on conjunctive tasks in which group success depends on the ability of each member to perform his/her role effectively (and the roles do not require heterogeneity).
The concepts of "job relatedness" and "business necessity" are associated with:
adverse impact
During a therapy session, Dad, who is normally soft-spoken and mild-mannered, becomes very agitated and starts yelling. The oldest daughter becomes upset and says, "Please stop, you're scaring Johnny" (the 6-year old son). Dad stops yelling and becomes calm again. This is an example of:
family homeostasis

Homeostasis refers to the tendency of systems (including family systems) to maintain the status quo. In this situation, the daughter's reaction is acting as negative feedback, which causes the father to act more characteristically.
Ex post facto research is distinguished from true experimental research by:
an inability to manipulate the independent variable(s).

A study is considered to be ex post facto when the IV cannot be manipulated because it has already been applied. Note that some experts categorize ex post facto research as "quasi-experimental," while others place it in a separate category (e.g., descriptive research).
To assess the general intelligence of a six-year old deaf child, you would use which of the following tests:
Hiskey-Nebraska
A researcher designs a study to test Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development. Assuming that Vygotsky is right, the researcher will find that cognitive development is most affected by:
culture

Vygotsky believed that cognitive development is fostered by interpersonal interactions and, as a consequence, is affected by culture and other social factors.
The most effective treatment for Factitious Disorder is currently considered to be:
supportive psychotherapy in an outpatient setting

Although no specific treatment has been identified as consistently effective for Factitious Disorder, many experts agree that establishing a good therapeutic relationship and providing supportive therapy and consistency of care is the best way to manage its symptoms.
When using a structured interview, the responses of interviewees are evaluated:
against an established criterion.

One advantage of a structured interview is that it provides individual item scores and a total score that are derived from prespecified criteria. The interview score can then be combined with scores on other selection procedures in a multiple regression equation (or similar technique) to predict job performance.
It has been suggested that women stay with abusive partners because they fear the consequences of leaving. Based on your knowledge of the research in this area, you can conclude that:
this fear has been supported by the finding that incidents of abuse increase following separation
Recent studies examining the therapist preferences of individuals belonging to culturally-diverse groups indicates that they are most likely to:
rank attitude similarity as more important than race/ethnic similarity.

When members of culturally diverse groups were given a choice between race/ethnic similarity and attitude similarity, most ranked attitude similarity as more important.
A 12-year old boy's mother says her son is very argumentative with adults, doesn't do what he is asked to do, and frequently starts fights with his sister and classmates at school. In addition, in the past year, the boy has skipped school at least a half dozen times, and he ran away from home for two days on three different occasions. The mother has been divorced for three years, and she notes that these problems started soon after she remarried 14 months ago. Based on these symptoms, the most likely diagnosis for the boy is:
Conduct Disorder

The boy is exhibiting behavior that fulfills DSM-IV-TR's requirements for a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder: He is exhibiting a pattern of behavior that violates major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The boy's symptoms are more severe than those associated with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.
Bandura's social learning theory predicts that:
cognitive events act as intervening variables in the acquisition of a new behavior

Bandura concluded that observational learning involves four processes: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. The first two of these, attention (attending to and accurately perceiving the behavior), and retention (symbolic processing of the modeled behavior) are cognitive processes.
Dr. R provided treatment to a client in State X where Dr. R resides and works. Treatment ended six months ago and the client has since moved to State Y. Dr. R receives a subpoena from the client's attorney who also resides and works in State Y. The subpoena requires Dr. R to provide testimony at a trial involving the former client. Dr. R:
should contact an attorney to determine if he must appear as requested.

In his book on legal matters, R. Woody concludes that the appropriate course of action in this type of situation would be to consult an attorney to determine the legal authority of the subpoena
The kappa statistic is used as a measure of reliability when data are:
nominal or ordinal (discontinuous)

The kappa statistic is used to evaluate inter-rater reliability. The kappa statistic is used to measure the consistency of ratings assigned by two raters when data are nominal or ordinal. (Note that some authors use the term "discontinuous" to refer to nominal and other discrete data – i.e., data that represents noncontinuous categories.)
metric
sometimes used to refer to interval and ratio data
Your ability to clearly remember where you were and what you were doing when you first heard about the Oklahoma City bombing is attributable to the phenomenon known as "flashbulb memory." In turn, flashbulb memory is attributable to the activities of the:
limbic system
It is not until _____ years of age that most children express more favorable attitudes toward members of their own ethnic or racial group than toward members of other groups:
4
Early studies on in-group preferences found that children typically demonstrate preferences for members of their own ethnic/racial group and gender by about age 4 and 5, respectively.
Longitudinal research has shown that the "Big Five" personality traits remain relatively stable from midlife until later adulthood. However, when individuals reach their 80s and 90s, status on three of the five traits often shifts. Specifically:
agreeableness and acceptance of change increase, while sociability decreases
Recent research suggests that the decreased likelihood of tardive dyskinesia associated with the novel (newer) antipsychotic drugs is due to the fact that, in comparison with traditional antipsychotics, these drugs:
have lower affinity for D(2) receptors
Research evaluating the predictive validity of structured interviews as hiring tools in organizations suggests that:
the validity of structured interviews as predictors of performance is increased when the interview is used in combination with a measure of general mental ability
The left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex have recently been linked, respectively, to:
verbal and nonverbal working memory

The role of the prefrontal cortex in short-term memory (especially working memory) has recently been established, and previous research linked verbal abilities to the left hemisphere and nonverbal abilities to the right hemisphere.
With regard to the DSM, the term "polythetic" refers to:
the fact that an individual can exhibit only a subset of the diagnostic criteria for a disorder to be assigned that diagnosis
Current theories of empathy development consider "emotional contagion" to be its earliest manifestation. This behavior emerges:
in the first weeks of life

Emotional contagion refers to the tendency of babies to cry at the sound of another infant's cries. This behavior is considered by experts to be the first sign of empathy. Emotional contagion is observed in infants as young as two days.
The primacy effect is usually stronger when:
The primacy effect is usually stronger than the recency effect, although the advantage of going first or last is affected by several factors. For example, there is more likely to be a primacy effect when the messages are presented back-to-back and there is a delay before a decision must be made.
In the context of managed care, the primary purpose of quality assurance is to:
assess the adequacy of services and make improvements to them when necessary
The "FI scallop" refers to:
the characteristic pause followed by accelerated responding that occurs within each fixed interval
According to Fielder's contingency model of leadership, a low LPC leader focuses on:
task motivation

According to Fiedler, leaders who describe their least preferred coworker in unfavorable terms are considered task-oriented. They focus on successful completion of the task. However, a high LPC leader describes the least preferred coworker in more pleasant terms, and are considered relationship-oriented. A high LPC leader would focus on maintaining good interpersonal relationships.
As defined by Aaron Beck, automatic thoughts are:
spontaneously triggered by a specific circumstance and accompanied by an emotional reaction
cognitive distortions
systematicaerrorsainareasoningathataareaevident during times of psychological distress
A man with a history of chronic back pain loses his job. He tells you that his pain has been much worse since he stopped working. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is:
masked depression

The clue is the man's loss of his job, which is certainly a potential precipitant of depression. The research has shown that depression can magnify pre-existing pain.
Level of organizational commitment is most predictive of:
turnover

Like job satisfaction, commitment appears to have the highest correlation with turnover. It is also related to the individual's willingness to exert effort on behalf of the company.
In his well-known 1973 study, Rosenhan had several "pseudopatients" admit themselves to psychiatric hospitals with complaints of auditory hallucinations. Which of the following is most useful for explaining the results of Rosenhan's study:
halo effect

The halo effect is a rater bias that occurs when a rater's ratings of an individual on one or several dimensions are affected by his/her rating on another dimension. The halo effect does explain the response of mental health professionals in this study; i.e., the mental health professionals continued to "rate" pseudopatients on the basis of their first ratings (diagnosis), regardless of the patients' subsequent behaviors.
The function of the state licensing boards is probably best described as:
setting entry-level qualifications for licensure and monitoring the conduct of licensed psychologists
ADHD has been most consistently linked to:
reduced blood flow to the frontal lobes

Reduced blood flow to the frontal lobes (hypofrontalilty) is one of the brain abnormalities that has been most consistently linked to ADHD. In addition, Ritalin has been found to increase blood flow to this area of the brain.
An organizational psychologist conducts a(n) _________ to determine the relative worth of a job compared to other jobs.
job evaluation

Job evaluations are conducted for the purpose of establishing the worth of a job so that an appropriate wage can be defined for that job.
When using the multitrait-multimethod matrix:
the same examinees are tested on multiple (same and different) traits using multiple measures and their scores on the measures are correlated
Gregory Herek (2000) proposes that the term "sexual prejudice" be used as a substitute for:
homophobia
An organizational psychologist conducts a(n) _________ to determine the relative worth of a job compared to other jobs.
job evaluation

Job evaluations are conducted for the purpose of establishing the worth of a job so that an appropriate wage can be defined for that job.
Which of the following patient characteristics has been found to most consistently correlate with therapy outcome:
intelligence

Of the characteristics listed, intelligence has been most consistently associated with therapy outcome (with higher levels of intelligence being linked to more positive outcome). Other patient factors that correlate positively with therapy outcome include educational level, ego strength, anxiety tolerance, attractiveness, and client participation.
When using the multitrait-multimethod matrix:
the same examinees are tested on multiple (same and different) traits using multiple measures and their scores on the measures are correlated
If the relationship between level of anxiety (the independent variable) and number of words recalled (the dependent variable) is nonlinear, which of the following would be most useful for statistically evaluating the relationship between the two variables:
trend analysis

Trend analysis is useful for determining the nature of the relationship between a quantitative IV and a DV. It will show if there is a significant linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic trend.
Gregory Herek (2000) proposes that the term "sexual prejudice" be used as a substitute for:
homophobia
The MANOVA
is used to assess the effects of one or more IVs on two or more DVs.
The ANCOVA
is used to statistically remove the effects of an extraneous variable.
Which of the following patient characteristics has been found to most consistently correlate with therapy outcome:
intelligence

Of the characteristics listed, intelligence has been most consistently associated with therapy outcome (with higher levels of intelligence being linked to more positive outcome). Other patient factors that correlate positively with therapy outcome include educational level, ego strength, anxiety tolerance, attractiveness, and client participation.
A psychologist is hired to develop a selection test to be used for hiring management trainees. The first step in the development of the selection test should be which of the following:
job analysis

A job analysis is performed to determine the skills, knowledge, and abilities required by a job. Once these have been identified, selection tests can be chosen or developed.
If the relationship between level of anxiety (the independent variable) and number of words recalled (the dependent variable) is nonlinear, which of the following would be most useful for statistically evaluating the relationship between the two variables:
trend analysis

Trend analysis is useful for determining the nature of the relationship between a quantitative IV and a DV. It will show if there is a significant linear, quadratic, cubic, or quartic trend.
REM sleep is ordinarily preceded by a period of Stage 2 sleep except in:
infants

In infants, an EEG indicates only two distinct sleep patterns: REM and NREM (quiet) sleep, and in the first few months, REM precedes NREM (the sleep period begins with REM sleep).
The MANOVA
is used to assess the effects of one or more IVs on two or more DVs.
Research on the role of hormones on sexual arousal suggests that:
androgen is responsible for arousal in both females and males

The research suggests that estrogen plays an insignificant role in female sexual motivation and arousal and that androgen, which is produced by the adrenal cortex, plays an important role in the sexual functioning of both males and females.
The ANCOVA
is used to statistically remove the effects of an extraneous variable.
Recent research suggests that what aspect of the Type A behavior pattern is most predictive of an increased risk for coronary heart disease:
hostility

The more recent research found that the "toxic" element of Type A behavior is negative emotions – especially excessive anger and hostility.
A psychologist is hired to develop a selection test to be used for hiring management trainees. The first step in the development of the selection test should be which of the following:
job analysis

A job analysis is performed to determine the skills, knowledge, and abilities required by a job. Once these have been identified, selection tests can be chosen or developed.
A psychologist constructs a new test of cynicism. She correlates the scores on her new test with scores on another test of cynicism and obtains a correlation of .22. Then, she correlates scores on her test with scores on a test of repressed anger and obtains a correlation of .60. The psychologist has obtained evidence of the test's:
low construct validity

This test has low convergent validity since the correlation between the test and another test purporting to measure the same construct is low. It also has low divergent validity, as evidenced by the high correlation between the test and another test purporting to measure a different trait. Convergent and divergent validity provide evidence of construct validity, or the usefulness of a test for measuring a theoretical trait or construct.
REM sleep is ordinarily preceded by a period of Stage 2 sleep except in:
infants

In infants, an EEG indicates only two distinct sleep patterns: REM and NREM (quiet) sleep, and in the first few months, REM precedes NREM (the sleep period begins with REM sleep).
A depressed client says she feels worthless and unlikable and every time she tries to do something to make things better, she is faced with barriers put up by her parents, boss, etc., who don't seem to recognize her efforts. In terms of the third component of Beck's cognitive triad, you would expect the client to also say:
she feels that things will never change.

This person's statements reflect a negative view of the self and the world, which are two of the three elements of Beck's cognitive triad. The third element is a negative view of the future. According to Beck, depressed people feel that failures, disappointments, etc., will never stop or change.
Research on the role of hormones on sexual arousal suggests that:
androgen is responsible for arousal in both females and males

The research suggests that estrogen plays an insignificant role in female sexual motivation and arousal and that androgen, which is produced by the adrenal cortex, plays an important role in the sexual functioning of both males and females.
Piaget attributed the animistic thinking characteristic of children in the preoperational stage to:
egocentrism

According to Piaget, the preoperational stage is marked by a number of limitations, including egocentrism, which is responsible for many of the other characteristics of this stage including animism.
Recent research suggests that what aspect of the Type A behavior pattern is most predictive of an increased risk for coronary heart disease:
hostility

The more recent research found that the "toxic" element of Type A behavior is negative emotions – especially excessive anger and hostility.
An MRI of a patient with Huntington's chorea is most likely to show atrophy in which brain structure:
caudate nucleus

Huntington's disease (chorea) is a basal ganglia disorder, and the basal ganglia are involved in the control of motor movements. The caudate nucleus and putamen are structures of the basal ganglia and have been found to be the brain areas most severely affected by Huntington's disease.
A psychologist constructs a new test of cynicism. She correlates the scores on her new test with scores on another test of cynicism and obtains a correlation of .22. Then, she correlates scores on her test with scores on a test of repressed anger and obtains a correlation of .60. The psychologist has obtained evidence of the test's:
low construct validity

This test has low convergent validity since the correlation between the test and another test purporting to measure the same construct is low. It also has low divergent validity, as evidenced by the high correlation between the test and another test purporting to measure a different trait. Convergent and divergent validity provide evidence of construct validity, or the usefulness of a test for measuring a theoretical trait or construct.
A depressed client says she feels worthless and unlikable and every time she tries to do something to make things better, she is faced with barriers put up by her parents, boss, etc., who don't seem to recognize her efforts. In terms of the third component of Beck's cognitive triad, you would expect the client to also say:
she feels that things will never change.

This person's statements reflect a negative view of the self and the world, which are two of the three elements of Beck's cognitive triad. The third element is a negative view of the future. According to Beck, depressed people feel that failures, disappointments, etc., will never stop or change.
Piaget attributed the animistic thinking characteristic of children in the preoperational stage to:
egocentrism

According to Piaget, the preoperational stage is marked by a number of limitations, including egocentrism, which is responsible for many of the other characteristics of this stage including animism.
An MRI of a patient with Huntington's chorea is most likely to show atrophy in which brain structure:
caudate nucleus

Huntington's disease (chorea) is a basal ganglia disorder, and the basal ganglia are involved in the control of motor movements. The caudate nucleus and putamen are structures of the basal ganglia and have been found to be the brain areas most severely affected by Huntington's disease.
R. Martin (1978) proposed that which of the following bases of social power are most important for the success of mental health consultation:
expert and referent
Research on the use of antidepressants for alleviating chronic pain has generally found that:
mixed serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are more effective than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
The Kuder-Richardson Formula 20:
is inappropriate for assessing the reliability of speeded tests because it produces a spuriously high reliability coefficient
Harvey's (1999) re-analysis of the 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data found that, in terms of future effects, maternal employment during the first three years of a child's life is most likely to have:
a small negative impact on the child's cognitive functioning but no consistent impact on emotional or behavioral development
A school psychologist is trying to determine why a fourth grade student with an above-average IQ is doing poorly in school. He talks to the student's parents and teacher separately and then meets with them jointly to discuss similarities and differences in the boy's behaviors at home and school. From the perspective of Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model, the psychologist is investigating which of the following:
microsystem and mesosystem

The microsystem includes aspects of the child's environment that affect him/her directly (e.g., school and home). The mesosystem refers to the interactions between elements of the microsystem (e.g., the interaction between home and school).
In their study of factors that affect memory across the lifespan, Park et al. (1996) found that perceptual (processing) speed and __________ are the best predictors of age-related variability in performance on tasks assessing effortful long-term memory:
working memory
It is found that a selection test is a better predictor of job success for applicants from higher socioeconomic levels than for applicants from lower socioeconomic levels. In this situation, socioeconomic level is best described as a(n):
moderator variable
Calculation of the utility of a training program in terms of dollar value includes which of the following:
T x d x C is part of the formula for calculating utility.
Dr. Blue, a psychologist, is hired by a company to administer tests for the purpose of evaluating current employees to determine if they should be considered for promotion. In this situation:
an informed consent from examinees should be obtained
As a practitioner of brief psychodynamically-oriented therapy, you are most likely to agree that positive transference:
is important to establish early in treatment
Research evaluating treatment outcomes for sex offenders suggests that which of the following is most effective:
cognitive-behavioral therapy
When treating a client with a paraphilia, which of the following techniques would be most useful for replacing the inappropriate stimulus that currently elicits sexual arousal with a more appropriate stimulus:
orgasmic reconditioning

When using orgasmic reconditioning, the client is "reconditioned" to masturbate to a more appropriate stimulus. This is accomplished by having the client begin to masturbate while fantasizing about the inappropriate stimulus and then switch his fantasy to the more appropriate stimulus.
Elderly people are at a particularly high risk for ________, with the risk being increased by medical illness and surgery:
delirium

Several factors place people at higher risk for delirium. People over 60 are usually cited as the group at highest risk in general. Moreover, the risk for this population increases as the result of a medical illness or surgery. Other high risk factors include cardiotomy, burns, and rapid withdrawal from alcohol or a sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic.
The presence of what symptoms would suggest a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder rather than a diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder:
frequent lying and running away from home

Lying and running away are characteristic of Conduct Disorder. Behaviors associated with Oppositional Defiant Disorder are less severe and include negativism, defiance, and hostility. Drug use is characteristic of Conduct Disorder and precocious use of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs is an associated feature of Oppositional Defiant Disorder.