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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Marbury v. Madison 1803
Established judicial review: "midnight judges;" John marshall; power of the supreme court.
McCulloch v. Maryland 1819
Established national supremacy; established implied powers; use of elastic clause; state unable to tax fed. institution; John Marshall; "power to tax involves the power to destroy"
Plessy V. Ferguson 1896
Established seperate but equal
Schenck v. U.S 1919
Oliver Wendell Holmes; Clear and present danger test; shouting "fire" in a crowded theater; limits on speech, especially during wartime
Gitlow v. New York 1925
Established precedent of federalizing Bill of rights (applying them to the states); states cannot deny freedom of speech- protected through due process clause of Amendment 14
Palko v. Connectictut 1937
Provided test fir determining which parts of Bill of Rights should be federalized- those whuch are implicitly or explicitly necessary for liberty to exist.
Brown V. Board, 1st 1954
School segregation unconstitutional; segregation psychologically damaging to blacks; overturned seperate but equal; use of 14th amendment; judicial activism of Warren Court; unanimous desicion
Brown v. Board, 2nd 1955
Ordered schools to desegregate "with all due and deliberate speed"
Mapp v. Ohio 1961
Established exclusionary rule; illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in court; Warren court's judicial activism.
Engel v. Vitale 1962
Prohibited state-sponsored recitation of prayer in public schools by virtue of 1st Amendments's due process clause; Warren Court's judical activism
Baker v. Carr 1962
"one man one vote". Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population; Warren Court's political judicial activism.
Abbington v. Schempp 1963
Prohibited devotional Bible reading in public schools by virtue of establishment clause and due process clause. Warren Court
Gideon v. Wainright 1963
Ordered states to provide lawyers for those unable to afford them in crimal proceedings. Warren Court's judicial activism in criminal rights.
Wesberry v. Sanders 1963
Ordered House districts to be as near equal in population as possible.
Griswold v. Connecticut 1965
Established right of privacy through 4th and 9th amendments. Set a precedent for Roe v. Wade.
Miranda v. Arizona 1966
Established Mirand warnings of counsel and silence. Must be given before questioning. Warren Court's judicial activism in criminal rights.
Lemon v. Kurtzman 1971
Established 3-part test to determine if establishment clause is violated: nonsecular purpose, andvances/inhibits religion, excessive entanglement with government.
Roe v. Wade 1973
Established national abortion guidlines; trimester guidelines: no state intergerence in 1st, state may regulate to protect health of mother in 2nd, state may regulate to protect health of unborn child in 3rd. Inferred from right of privacy established in Griswwald v. Connecticut.
U.S v. Nixon 1973
Allowed for executive privilege but not in criminal cases; "Even the President in not above the law;" Watergate
Buckley v. Valeo 1976
1st Amendment protects campaign spending; legislatures can limit contricutions, but not how much one spends of his own money on campaigns.
U.C Regents v. Bakke 1978
Alan Bakke and UC Davis Medical School; strict quotas unconstitutional, but states may allow race to be taken into account as ONE factor in admissions decisions. Bakke admitted.
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services 1987
More leeway for states in regulating abortion, though no overturning of Roe v. Wade.
Planned Parenthood v. Casey 1992
States can regulate abortion, but not with regualtions that impose "undue burden" upon women; did not overturn Roe v. Wade, but gave states more leeway in regualating abortion (e.g. 24-hour waiting period, parental consent for minors
Shaw v. Reno 1993
No racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominent factor in redrawing legislative boundries; majority- minority districts.
U.S v. Lopez 1995
Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded Congress' authority to regulate interstate commerce.
Clinton v. NY 1998
Banned presidential use of the line item veto
Bush v. Gore 2000
Use of 14th Amendment's equal protection clause to stop the Florida recount in the election of 2000.
Zelman v. Simmons-Harris 2002
Public money can be used to send disadvantaged children to religious schools in tuition voucher programs.
Ashcroft v. ACLU 2002
Struck down a federal ban on "virtual" child pornography
Lawrence v. Texas 2003
Using right of privacy, struck down Texas law banning sodomy
Gratz v. Bollinger 2003
Struck down use of "bonus points" for race in undergrad admissions at University of Michigan.
Grutter v. Bollinger 2003
Allowed the use of race as a general factor in law school admissions at University of Michigan.