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18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the clinical features of DM type 1?
Weight loss
-ab pain
-Kussmaul respirations
-Cerebral obtundation
What are the diagnostic lab findings of DKA?
Glucose > 300 mg/dl


Acidosis (pH <7.3; Bicarbonate 15 mEq/L


What are the glucose levels needed to diagnose DM type 1?
Random plasma glusose > 200 mg/dL

Fasting glucose > 126 mg/dL

2-h glucose tolerance > 200 mg/dL

In all cases, hyperglycemia & glucosuria are necessary
A 2 mo old pt appears to be having inadequate weight gain. His mother states he is constipated. On examination, he has decreased muscle tone, large fontanel, a large tongue, & an umbilical hernia
Congenital Hypothyroidism
What do the majority of Congenital Hypothyroidism cases result from?
Thyroid dysgenesis

2X more common in females
What are teh clinical signs of Congenital Hypothyroidism?
1. prolonged jaundice
2. poor feeding
3. somnolence
4. large tongue
5. Constipation
6. Umbilical hernia
7. Skin cold & mottled
8. Growth & development are retarded
9. Fontanels stay widely open
10. Hair is coarse & brittle
11. generalized muscle hypotonia
What are the diagnostic tests for Congenital Hypothyroidism?
1. Serum T4 levels are low
2. Elevated TSH levels

Retardation of osseous development can be shown on radiograph

Thyroid scans w/ Technetium or Radio-labeled iodine detect absence of or ectopic thyroid tissue
What is the therapy for Congenital Hypothyroidism?
A 12-year-old girl has a 6 month history of hyperactivity & declining school performance. Appetite is increased but she shows no weight gain. Physical exam reveals a slight tremor of the fingers, mild exophthalmos, & a neck mass
Hyperthyroidism = Graves dz
What is the etiology of Neonatal Hyperthyroidism?
infants born to mothers w/ Graves Dz
What HLA's is Graves dz associated with?
B8 & DR3
What are the clinical manifestations of Graves Disease?
Emotional disturbances
Motor hyperactivity
Emotional lability
Deterioration in school
Tremors of the fingers
Voracious appetite w/out gain
Sweating & Flushing
Tachycardia & Palpitations
What are the serum levels seen in Graves Dz?
T4, free T4, T3, & free T3 are elevated

TSH levels are low

Thyroid receptor stimulating antibodies are often present
What is the treatment for Graves disease?
Propylthiouracil or Methimazole

Propranolol is useful from reversing the symptoms in severely toxic pts
A 1 month old infant is seen w/ vomiting & severe dehydration. Exam reveals ambiguous genitalia; lab tests show hyponatremia
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
What does CAH result from?
Cortisol deficiency, which causes increased ACTH & subsequent hyperplasia
What does 21-hydroxylase deficiency result in?
1. Salt wasting
2. virilization & ambiguous genitalia in females
3. vomiting & hyponatremic dehydration

NOn-salt wasting boys have Premature Sexual Development, whereas girls have pseudohermaphroditism
What does 11B-hydroxylase deficiency result in?
Virilization & HTN, but does not cause salt wasting