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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
what is a Chromatin?
a DNA molecule and attached proteins, are usually dispressed in the nucleus
what structures are neccessary for inheritance?
DNA
how are the instructions duplicated for distrubution into the daughter cells?
DNA replication
what are multi-celled organisms role in mitosis?
increase the body size during growth, replace dead and worn out cells, and repair damaged tissue
What are protistans, fungi, plants, and animals role in mitosis?
asexual reproduction
what is each part of the duplicated chromosome called?
sister chromatids
what is a centromere?
a region of attached for 2 sister chromatids in the centromere
what is the chromosome number?
sum total of chromosomes in a cell, somatic cells or body cells
how many pairs of chromosomes do humans have and whats is the total number?
23, 46
gametes are also called?
sex cells
gametes have one of each what?
chromosome type
waht are th 5 phase of a cell cycle?
interphase, profase, anaphase, metaphase, telophase
what happens in the G1 portion of the cell cycle?
cell growth before DNA replication, chromosomes unduplicate, cells build almost all of the proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids they use for exports
What happens in the S portion of the the cell cycle?
CNA synthesis when
DNA replication is completed chromosomes duplicated, and they copy their DNA, histones, and other proteins
What happens in the g2 portion of the cell cycle?
cells prepare to divide, and the produce proteins that will drive mitosis to completion.
what happens in the molecular brake system?
cell cycle can stop at G1, it control mechanism governs the rate of cell division
What happens in interphase?
it usually is the longest part of the cycle, cells increase in mass, number of cytoplasmics compenents doubles, DNA is duplicated
what happens during mitosis?
its a period of nuclear division, usually followed by cytoplasmic division
once S begins, the cycl;e automatically runs through ___ and ____?
G2 and mitosis
the cell cycle has a built in moleculas brake in?
G1
some cells normallys stop in ____?
interphase
nuetrons in humans brains do not ________?
divide
what causes amoebas to get stuck in interphase?
when they are deprived of nutrients
The spindal apparatus consists of __ distinct sets of _____?
2, microtubes
two sets of distinct microtubes extend from one of the cells ____ amd the 2 sets overlap at the _______?
poles, spindal apparatus
The spindal apparatus helps move chromosomes during ______?
mitosis
during the transition to metapase what is formed?
spindal apparatud
during metaphase all the chromosomes are lined up at the ________?
spindal equator
what is the kinetochore?
attachment site of chromosomes, the microtubule attaches to it, and it creates a push-pull force to seperate sister chromaticaly
what happens in annaphase?
sister chromatids of each chromosome are pulled apart
once sister chromatids are seperated in annaphase each chromatid is a _______?
chromosome
during telophase chromosomes __________?
decondense
during telophase 2 ___________ form, one around each _________?
nuclear membranes, unduplicated chromosomes
what are the results of mitosis?
2 daughter nuclei, each have the same chromosomes as the parent cell, and chromosomes are in the unduplicated form.
when does cytoplasmic division occer?
between late anaphase and end of telophase
what are the 2 mechanisms in cytoplasmic division?
cell plate formation --in plants and cleavage-----in animals
what is cytoplasmic division also known as?
cytokinesis
cell plates are only in _____?
plant cells
vessicles accumilate alond the _______?
spinal equator
in cell plates deposits of what accumulate?
celluse
what happens in cell plates
cytokinesis or cytoplasmic division
in animal cells cleavage furrow forms seperating the _________?
cytoplasm
prokaryotic fission occer in ______ cells only?
bacteria
in prokayotic fission bacteria cells pinch apart in a process called_________?
fission
Prokaryotic fission in the basis of ________?
asexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction involves what 3 things?
1. Meiosis
2. gametes production
3. fertilization
during sexual reproduction chromosomes are duplicated in __________?
germ cells
during sexual reproduction cellular decendents of germ cells become?
gametes
during sexual reproduction gametes meet at ____________?
fertilization
Asexual reproduction means?
only a single parents produces offsping
as a reult of asexual reproduction generally all of the offspring are _______ to one another and the parent?
identical
what is Allele?
differnt molecules forms of a gene, that arise from mutation
Each ____ codes for differnt versions of the same trait
allele
when sexual reproduction shuffles the alleles the variation of traits is the basis for _________?
envoluntary change
gametes formation means?
sex cells arise from germ cells
meiosis is divided in to 2 constructive nuclear divisions called?
meiosis 1 and meiosis 2
how many haploid nuclei form in meiosis?
4
what is a test cross?
an individual that shows a dominate phenotype is crossed with an individual with a recessive phenotype
An experimental cross between individuals that are homozygous for diifernt versions of 2 traits is called?
Dihybrid cross
in complete dominance black + white = ?
Black
in incomplete dominacne Red + White = ?
pink
in codominace type A + type B = ?
AB
Alleles at a single locus may have multiple effects on 2 or more traits is called?
pleiotropy
epistasis is?
the interaction between 2 or more gene pairs
epistasis is common for ____ in mamals??
hair color
a more or less continuous range of small differnece in a given trait among individuals?
continuous variation
Variations in humans that traits occer as a few discrete types?
human variation
what is an example of human variation?
attached or detached ear lobes