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80 Cards in this Set

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Cerebral palsy can be divided into what three categories?
1. Ataxic CP
2. Athetoid CP
3. Spastic CP
List the cause and characteristics of Ataxic Cerebral Palsy
Ataxic CP is caused by damage to cerebellum and characteristics include disturbed balance, awkward gait and uncoordinated movements.
List the cause and characteristics of Athetoid Cerebral Palsy
Athetoid CP is caused by damage to the indirect motor pathways, especially the basal ganglia. It is characterized by slow, wrtithing, involuntary movement.
Type Token Ratio assesses what skill?
TTR represents the variety of different words the child uses expressively, thus assessing the child's semantic and lexical skills.
Explain Van Riper's traditional approach.
Van Riper traditional approach is focused on auditory discrimination/perceptual training, phonetic placement, drill-like repetition and practice.
What is the McDonald's Sensory Motor Approach?
McDonald's Sensory Motor Approach is based on the assumption that the syllable and not the isolated phoneme is the basic unit of speech production. This approach is helpful for children with oro-motor articulation disfficulties.
What is purpose of Distinctive Features approach?
The purpose of Distinctive Features Approach is to establish missing distinctive features contrasts by teaching relevant sounds.
Describe the Metaphon approach.
The Metaphon approach is based on metalinguistic awareness and is designed to enhance children's metalinguistic skills
Describe Hodson and Paden Cycles approach.
Hodson and Paden Cycles approach is a phonological pattern approach designed to treat children with multiple misarticulation and highly unintelligible speech. Error patterns are targeted for remediation based on stimulability, intelligibility and percentage of occurence (40% or greater) The cycle runs 5 to 16 weeks. Each treatment session consists of 1) review of previous session target words 2) auditory bombardment, listening to target words that are amplified 3) activities involving new target words 4) play break 5) even more activities involving target words 6) repeating auditory bombardment and dismissal
What is the difference between incidence and prevalence?
Incidence is the rate of occurrence in a specified group of people,while prevalence is determined by counting the number of people who currently have the disorder
What structure does the larynx suspend from?
The hyoid bone
What cartilage forms the anterior and lateral walls of the larynx and serves a protective function?
The thyroid cartilage
Which laryngeal cartilage permits sliding and circular movements?
Arytenoid cartilage
Which cartilage reduces the laryngeal opening when swallowing?
Corniculate cartilage
Which cartilage stiffens or tenses the arypeglottic (or vocal) folds?
Cuneiform cartilages
What is the function of the internal thyroarytenoid?
The internal thyroarytenoids (also known as vocal folds) is to vibrate and produce sounds.
List the abductor laryngeal muscles.
LCA, TA and OA
Lateral cricoarytenoids, Transverse arytenoids and oblique arytenoids
What muscle tenses and lengthens the vocal folds and what is it attached to?
The cricothyroid lengthens and tenses the vocal folds and it is attached to cricoid and thyroid cartilages.
The intrinsic laryngeal muscles are innervated by what cranial nerve.
The intrinsic laryngeal muscles are innervated by cranial nerve X
What are suprahyoid muscles?List them
Suprahyoid muscles are extrinsic laryngeal muscles that serve as laryngeal elevators.
What are infrahyoid muscles?
Infrahyoid muscles are extrinsic laryngeal muscles that serve as laryngeal depressors.
When do the ventricular (or false) vocal folds vibrate?
Ventricular vocal folds vibrate at very low frequencies during activities such as coughing and lifting heavy items.
State the myoelastic - aerodynamic theory?
The myoelastic - aerodynamic theory states that the vocal folds vibrate because of the forces of pressure of air and the elasticity of the vocal folds.
What is the Bernoulli Effect?
The Bernoulli Effect is caused by the increased speed of air passing between the vocal folds, is the sucking motion of the vocal folds to one another
Which muscle both elevates and depresses the velum?
Palatoglossus (innervated by X and XI) both elevates and depresses the velum.
Which muscle tenses the velum and dilates the eustachian?
Tensor veli palatini
Which muscle is the primary elevator of the velum?
Levator veli palatini
List the cranial nerves and what they innervate.
1 = smell 2 = eye (sensory)
3 , 4, 6 = eye movement
5 = face (sensory) and jaw motor)
7 = tongue (sensory) and face (motor)
8 = hearing and balance
9 = tongue (sensory) pharynx (sensory and motor)
10 = larynx, cardiac and gatrointestinal
11 = shoulder arm and throat movements
12 = tongue movements
What is the function of the Recticular Activation System (RAS)?
The RAS is the primary mechanism of attention and consciousness. It controls sleep/wake cycles and alertness. It also plays a role in the execution of motor activities.
What is the role of the cerebellum?
The cerebellum regulates balance, body posture and coordinated fine movements
Why is the Broca's area important?
Broca's area is important for the production of well-articulated, fluent speech. Broca's area is located in the frontal lobe
What 2 areas of the parietal lobe are important for speech and language?
1. Supramarginal gyrus and
2. Angular gyrus, which damage can cause difficulties in writing, reading and naming difficulties.
Why is Wernicke area important?
Wernicke area is important in the comprehension of spoken and written language. It is located in the temporal lobe and connected to Broca's area by arcuate fasciculus.
What is the pyramidal systems responsible for?
The pyramidal systems is responsible for facilitating muscle movement (including speech). The system is composed of the corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts
Which fiber tract is controls all voluntary movements of speech muscles?
Corticobulbar tract
What is the major supplier of blood to the brain?
Internal caroid artery
What is the artery that is the major supplier of blood for language, speech and hearing functions?
Middle cerebral artery, damage causes stroke and aphasia and impaired sense of pain, temperature, touch and position
What is the function of the anterior cerebral artery?
The anterior cerebral artery supplies blood to the corpus callosum and basal ganglia. Damage can cause cognitive deficits such as impaired judgement, concentration and reasoning.
Which cranial nerves are key in the phonation process.
Cranial nerves VII (facial) and X (Vagus)
Damage to what part of the Circle of Willis causes minimal challenege?
Below the Circle of Willis
Which 2 nerves innervate the larynx?
1. Superior laryngeal nerve
2 Recurrent laryngeal nerve.

SLN has two branches
i) internal branch: which provides sensory info to larynx
ii) Exterior branch which supplies motor info to cricothyroid muscle only

RLN supplies sensory info below the vocal fold
What is the maximum phonation time?
The maximum phonation time is the duration of time a client can say "ahhhh"
Which type of memory is most likely preserved?
Implicit memory, which is the unconscious learning which is based on procedures and consequences and often includes motor skills. Explicit memory and episodic memories are least preserved.
What 3 factors are essential to the traveling wave on the basilar membrane
Mass, elasticity and fluid movement.
Who proposed the following theories?
1. Nativist (syntax) or Language Acqusition Device (LAD) theory
2. Cognitive theory
3. Social interaction theory
Noam Chomsky proposed the Nativist (syntax) or Language Acqusition Device (LAD) theory
2. Piaget proposed the cognitive theory
3. Lev Vygotsky proposed the Social interaction theory
True or False. Whole Language approach is evidence based
False
Define frequency perturbation (jitter) and amplitude perturbation (shimmer)
Jitter is the variation in vocal frequency, while shimmer is the cycle to cycle variation of vocal intensity
How does a patient with a strident voice sound?
A patient with a strident voice sounds, shrill, unpleasant and high pitched
What are some symptoms of acoustic neuromas?
Symptoms of unilateral hearing loss include tinnitus, dizziness, and dysequilibrium.
Type B(flat) typanoggrams may be attributed to what causes?
Type B(flat) typanoggrams may be attributed by
1. Tympanic membrane perforation
2. Impacted cerumen
3. Probe against the canal wall
4. Pressure equalizing tube
Interrupted ossicular chain results in what type of typanogram?
An Type Ad typanogram.
What percentage of vital capacity is required for speech production?
20%
What is Voice Onset Time?
Voice Onset Time is the time segment between the release of a stop and the onset for voicing for the vowels that follow.
Which articulators are involved in producing pharyngeal fricatives?
Posterior pharygneal wall and tongue base.
Congenital hereditary hearing loss usually what type of hearing loss
Sensorineural hearing loss
Hypernasality is perceived during the production of what phonomes?
Vowels and vocalic consonants.
Define Passavant Ridge.
Passavant's ridge is the anterior displacement of a distinct portion of the posterior pharyngeal wall during speech.
What factors affect a child's emergent literacy skills?
Oral language and metalinguistic awareness
What two ways does ALS manifest itself.
ALS manifests itself in 2 ways:
1. Bulbar onset: where damage begins in the corticubulbar tract and has rapid negative effect on speech production.
2. Motor onset: damage begins in the spinal cord and first affects motor function
What is a salient characteristic of hyperkinetic dysarthria.
Involuntary movement
What is the FAS test
The FAS test (is an example of a word fluency task) is a test in which clients are asked to name things that start with f, a, s, sounds. This test helps reveal the presence of brain injury.
What is the Lidcombe program?
The Lidcombe program is a parent centered program where the parent serves as the clinician for the child?
Lesions in which sites are most likely to cause apraxia of speech?
1. inferior frontal cortex (Broca's Area)
2. Left parietal cortex
3. Left anterior insula
What layer of the vocal fold helps maintain it's shape?
Epiithelium layer
The neuropathological process of Alhzeimers is identified by the progressive loss of what part of the brain?
Hippocampus and entorhinal cortex
Spontaneous improvement in resonance which is evident in childhood but resolves itself in puberty occur in what syndrome?
Prader-Willi Syndrome
What is the focus of Resonant Voice therapy?
The focus of Resonant Voice Therapy is to produce voice with slightly abducted vocal folds and minimal subglottic pressure
What is the focus of Symptomatic Voice Therapy?
The focus of Symptomatic Voice Therapy is modification of deviant vocal symptoms.
Test-Teach-Retest is characteristic of what type of assessment method?
Dynamic Assessment
What are the recovery times for ischemic and hemorhagic strokes
Ischemic stroke = 4 to 6 weeks
Hemohagic strokes = 3 to 6 months
Which nerve is connected to vocal fold adduction (closing)
Recurrent laryngeal nerve
List the cover layers of the vocal fold
1.epithelium
2. superfical layer
3. lamina propria
What is a critical diagnosis of right hemisphere?
Impaired narrative skills
what is a difference btw the paramidal and extrapyramidal system
pyramidal system controls voluntary fine motor skills while extrapyramidal controls postural support for fine motor movement
What are the two classes of speech sounds and what are their functions
1. Vowels, which are the nucleus of syllables
2. Consonants,which release and arrest syllables
What hemisphere specializes in visual and spatial information
Right hemisphere
Damage to what cranial nerve causes mask-like appearance
Cranial nerve 7
Diadochokinectic activity access what
oral motor coordination
Impaired facial recognition is more common with patients with
posterior right hemisphere damage
True or false.AOS is a neurologic speech disorder
True