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80 Cards in this Set

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The hard palate is formed by the union of which two bones of the facial skeleton?
The maxillae and palatine bones
You have been asked to evaluate a client who has sustained a neurological insult. The chart tells you that his lateral cricoarytenoid is paralyzed in an abducted position. Upon your evaluation, you will likely find that this client’s voice is
Aphonic
You are reviewing the audiogram of a new client on your caseload and you notice that his pure tone average at 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz is 45 dB HL, yet his SRT is 25 dB HL. What does this tell you?
This may be a person with a functional (non-organic) hearing loss
A parent of a child on your caseload calls you for assistance in interpreting a report she has obtained from an audiologist. She reads you that the child’s tympanogram is a “type C”. She wants you to explain what that means in terms she can understand. What could you tell her?
There is negative pressure in the middle ear, which may mean the Eustchian Tube is not functioning properly at this time
Upon completion of an on oral motor examination a client who has recently had a stroke, you note that his tongue deviates to the right side. What conclusion might you draw from these results?
The right genioglossus is weak. The genioglossus is the extrinsic tongue muscle responsible for protruding the tongue. Remember that the tongue is actually divided down the midline by the median fibrous septum, and the muscles on the right and left sides are innervated separately. Therefore, when the right genioglossus is weak, it will not be an equal contributor to tongue protrusion. The left genioglossus will be working harder than the weaker right. This will cause the tongue to deviate to the right side.
What are the following postural strategies designed to do?
1. Chin Tuck
2. Effortful Swallow
3. Supraglottic swallow
4. Mendelsohn Maneuver
5. Effortful swallow
In chin tuck, the forward movement of the chin will widen and increase the vallecular space, and facilitate movement of the bolus from that space.
An effortful swallow would reduce pharyngeal residue
Improved closure of the airway would benefit from a supraglottic swallow
Increased laryngeal excursion would benefit from the Mendelsohn Maneuver
A neck extension would aid bolus transfer off the tongue.
An effortful Swallow is an example of what type of technique?
Client controlled technique
The FEEST study indicates that your patient who has a delayed pharyngeal swallow trigger present with reduced closure of their airway .What patient controlled variable that might help this patient?
The super- supraglottic strategy is a patient controlled technique which narrows or closes the entrance of the airway to prevent food from penetrating the entrance of the airway.
What is the number one cause of speech and language disability in the elderly population?
Cerebrovascular disease. It may cause dementia, apraxia, dysarthria, aphasia, and right hemisphere damage.
What is preserved in global aphasia?
Nonpropositional speech. A- nonpropositional speech or automatics may be persevered in all types of aphasia
Right hemisphere damaged patient have language impairments characterized by:
Mild language impairments with ability to meet daily needs with potentially significant non-linguistic and extra linguistic communication impairments
A lesion to the temporal lobe may result what deficits?
Deficits in receptive language and memory function
What is a primary method of intervention for learning disabled children who exhibit reading and writing difficulties?
Utilize a holistic approach that integrates oral language, reading, and writing with metacognitive strategy training
Symptoms of Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia (ADSD) are most successfully treated with what?
Botox (botulinum toxin) is a neurotoxin that temporarily paralyzes muscle. By injecting Botox into the thyroarytenoid muscles, vocal fold adduction is weakened. This results in a reduction of adductor spasms associated with ADSD.
What is the term most commonly used by researchers and authors to describe a deficit in the ability to sequence nonverbal, voluntary movements of the tongue, lips, jaw, and other associated oral structures?
Orofacial Apraxia
Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by what symptoms
1. Large numbers of senile plaques
2. Social comportment disorder
3. Intellectual disorder
4. Memory loss
List common features associated with Right temporal parietal lobe damage
Features associated with Right Temporal Parietal Lobe damage include: inappropriate speech, disorientation, and lack of vocal and facial expression
What type of aphasia is charcterized by nonfluent output, paraphasias, good comprehension, and remarkable ability to repeat
Transcortical motor aphasia
Bilateral abbuctor paralysis can lead to what?
Upper airway obstruction because the true vocal folds are stuck in midline, the person would have difficulty breathing and may require a tracheotomy
What disorder has a primary disorder of articulation and prosody?
Apraxia of speech is primarily a disorder of articulation and prosody.
Which dysarthria has the following symptoms: slow-labored articulation, hypernasal resonance, and hoarse-breathy phonation.
Spastic dysarthria
Which dysarthria is characterized by increased speech rate?
Hypokinetic dysarthria is the only type of dysarthria in which this phenomenon may be observed
Applebee identified how many levels of narrative production?
6 Levels. They include Applebee’s levels of narratives are heaps, sequences, primitive narrative, unfocused chain, focused chain, and a true narrative
What type of dysarthria is charcterized by the possibility of a rush of rapid speech?
Hypokinetic dysarthria
What type of dysarthria is characterized by imprecise articulation, monotonous pitch and loudness, and harsh voice quality.
Spastic dysarthria
A palatal lift is a common treatment for hypernasality secondary to spastic dysarthria; however, due to ______________, the use of a palatal lift may be difficult or impossible. Dworkin (1991) recommends a program to decrease this contributing factor through a detailed sequence of steps and simulation of placement of the palatal lift.
Velar hypertonicity
Discuss the following theories:
1. Structuralist theory
2. Interactionist-Discovery 3. Natural Theory (Stampe)
4. Prosodic Theory
1. The structuralist theory proposes that children are born with an innate ability to develop language, and skills are acquired in a universal order or structure. 2. The interactionist-discovery theory states that the child uses trial and error to discover the rules and to actively learn a new system. 3. The natural theory proposes that children develop sounds by imitating the adult model, but because of immature motor abilities the productions are naturally simplified.
4. The prosodic theory proposes that children try to produce units or chunks of meaningful speech rather than individual phonemes.
Damage to which nerve causes the following symptoms; gurgly voice who is unable to reach the high pitches, and is able to cough and clear the throat on intention?
The superior laryngeal nerve
What is the first grammatical morpheme to be used expressively by a child?
–ing
What is the difference between an active and an assigned variable?
Active variables are independent variables that are manipulated by the researcher; assigned variables is a potential independent variable that cannot be manipulated.
What does Complete Counterbalancing mean?
Complete Counterbalancing means that all subjects in the experimental group are matched in the control group
What is the difference between a dependent and independent variable?
The dependent variable is synonymous with the effect, many times caused by manipulation of an independent variable.
Examples of compensatory articulation patterns associated with VPI are ....
1. Glottal stops
2. Pharyngeal stops
3. Pharyngeal fricatives
4. Backing
How does a quasi-experimental design differ from a true experimental group design?
The omission of random assignment of subjects to an experimental and control group
What lobe that interprets hearing and the dominant lobe for understanding language?
The temporal lobe contains areas responsible for the reception of sound and its interpretation
Why is Papillomatosis a dangerous disease?
The papilloma can crowd the glottal, subglottal, and supraglottal areas making breathing difficult. After surgery, the lesions may continue to grow back.
A syndrome is most often associated with what type of cleft?
Cleft of the secondary palate only
If a sound wave vibrates at 200 cycles per second, what is the period of the sound wave?
1/200 seconds
Lateralization of fricatives and affricates are common in children with repaired cleft palates, and are mostly attributed to what?
Malocclusion between top and bottom teeth
The medio-lateral excursion of the vocal fold cover during vibration is called what?
Mucosal wave
What does the physiological process of “checking” enables us to do?
The process of “checking” takes place during the exhalation phase of respiration. It is the contraction of the muscles of inhalation, during the exhalation phase. Checking prevents the exhaled breath from escaping all at once, so that we do not run out of air before we have finished what we have to say
What is the function of the accessory muscles during respiration?
The accessory muscles assist the diaphragm and the external intercostals, when extra power is needed for speech, loud speech, singing, or exercise. They act to elevate the ribs, expanding the thorax in the anterior-posterior dimension, adding volume to the thorax and the lungs. This enables one to take more air in, and results in a more forceful exhalation needed to overcome the resistance of the adducted vocal folds.
What does contraction of the diaphragm during inhalation will result in?
Increase in the size of the thoracic cavity and lungs
What does the cricoarytenoid joint permit?
Adduction and abduction of the true vocal folds
What is the function of the middle ear muscle?
They serve a protective function against noise damage
An infract in what anatomical regions would most likely result in dyspahgia?
The swallow center is located in the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata (part of the brainstem).
What is the most frequent type of fluency disorder
Developmental stuttering
The components of story grammar analysis are....
setting, initiating event, reaction, attempt, consequence resolution
Chronic use of levodopa in parkinsonism results in what?
Dyskinesias
patient with traumatic brain damage to both the cerebellum and various cranial nerves may exhibit a mixed dysarthria that has characteristics of both
Flaccid dysarthria and ataxic dysarthria
Which dysarthria may have the following symptoms: central facial weakness during voluntary movements, lingual weakness, and hemiplegia
UUMN dysarthria
The American Speech-Language Hearing Association is governed by…
ASHA is governed by an elected Executive Board and an elected Legislative Council
What defines the level at which the conclusion reached by the study may be due to chance?
The alpha level, or significance level, is a predetermined statistical level (e.g., .05 or .01) which reflects that the results of the study, if at or below this number, are not due just to chance but rather, as in the case of a study of language behavior, to treatment effects.
In a study of administration of the Praxis, scores were compared between the two types of administration: a printed test and the computerized administration. In this particular example, the independent variable is ___________; the dependent variable is _____________.
type of administration; test scores
What is a statistical procedure that combines the results of many studies investigating the same variable
A meta-analysis analyzes the results of several studies that have investigated the same variable.
Which experimental designs are those studies in which the experimenter is not able to exert full control over all the relevant variables and operations
Quasi-experimental designs are used whenever practical considerations prevent the use of more controlled, better designs of research. This type of design was originally suggested as a means conducting experiments in natural settings rather than controlled, clinical ones.
What is the scale in which zero denotes absence and the numbers can be mathematically manipulated?.
The ratio scale has an absolute zero and the numbers can be manipulated mathematically
What is the consistency or repeatability of the measurement of some phenomena?
Reliability
The muscles that elevate the soft palate are called ...
Levator palatini muscles
When screening a child’s hearing, the usual decibel level (in an appropriate sound proof environment) for frequencies above 500Hz is ...
20dB
What is Bootstrapping?
Strapping consonants onto vowels to create meaningful units using knowledge in one area of language to figure out information in another. When children bootstrap they use already learned information to assist in decoding new information
Bilateral, symmetrical vocal fold nodules will most likely result in ...
The gaps caused by the nodules would result in unphonated air escaping. This would be perceived as breathiness. The gaps would also make it difficult to increase subglottal pressure. With lower the subglottal pressure, the softer the voice. Increase in mass, bilaterally, would lower the pitch and make it hard to reach the higher pitches; hence a reduced pitch range.
Fundamental frequency (Fo) refers to ....
The number cycles per second that the vocal fold covers vibrate. it is also the speed at which the covers of the true vocal folds are sucked together and blow apart, will directly determine how many cycles of vibration occur within a certain time. The number of cycles per second is called the fundamental frequency (Fo), and is measured in Hertz (Hz). A person’s pitch is determined by the Fo. The higher the Fo, the higher the pitch.
A range of frequencies that filters will transmit is called what?
Bandwidths
During sustained phonation, the vocal folds are .......
held in the air stream of the exhaled air, where their properties allow them to interact with the airflow to cause vibration
Which pharyngeal/ laryngeal exam would you use to assess strength of pharyngeal wall contraction?
Gag Reflex. When assessing a gag reflex you place a laryngeal mirror or tongue depressor against the base of the tongue or on the pharyngeal wall to observe pharyngeal wall contraction.
What is the earliest developing form of joint reference
Eye contact
A patient with a hyperfunctional voice disorder typically phonates with the laryngeal structures held in which state?
Elevated and rigid because excess tension during hyperfunctional dysphonia results in a larynx that is held too high and is too tense.
Which dysarthria is speech characteristics reflect the effects of incoordination and reduced muscle tone?
Ataxic dysarthria is due to dysfunction of the cerebellar control circuit. This control circuit coordinates timing and force of muscular contractions and allows for skilled, voluntary movements.
Authorities consider this clinical behavior essential in the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease
Response to levodopa. positive clinical diagnosis for idiopathic Parkinson’s disease is a response to levodopa (e.g., reduction or disappearance of rigidity). The remaining answers comprise the most prominent characteristics of parkinsonism: tremors at response, bradykinesia (slow movement), postural instability, and rigidity.
The hallmark feature of dysarthria in general is ...
Imprecise consonants is the hallmark feature of dysarthria in general. While not present in all patients with dysarthria, studies by Darley, Aronson, and Brown revealed imprecise consonants to be the most common speech production error in many of the types of dysarthria
What is the term is most often used to describe a condition that usually occurs in adulthood and may at first be observed only during periods of distress, when it is initially described as “transient nervousness,”
Essential Tremor. This condition is known most commonly as “essential tremor”. It may cause a hyperkinetic dysarthria characterized by a tremulous, quavering voice quality. It is frequently confused with parkinsonism. Three characteristics defined by Wiederholt (1995) as differentiating are: The tremor associated with essential tremor is faster than the parkinsonism tremor; the tremor associated with essential tremor is an action tremor that will disappear at rest, while the tremor associated with parkinsonism is a rest tremor that disappears or decreases during movement; and individuals with essential tremor do not have the co-occurring neurologic features associated with parkinsonism (e.g., bradykinesia, akinesia, dementia).
What is a non-radiologic technique provides the best method of viewing velar valving during speech
A nasopharyngoscopy provides a view of the valving mechanism during speech.
The gray matter which comprises the cerebral cortex is made up of ....
Soma cell bodies also known as neuronal bodies
What is Coalescence?
Coalescence is a phonological process described as two adjacent sounds replaced by a third sound which has characteristics of both e.g. swim becomes fim.
What is the difference between Epenthesis and Metathesis?
Epenthesis involves the insertion of a sound, usually a schwa. e.g. big becomes biga, while Metathesis involves switching two sounds or syllables within a word e.g. ask becomes aks.
A presurgical technique for complete clefts of the lip that helps to align the maxillary arches / alveolar ridges is called ....
Nasoalveolar Molding (NAM). The primary palate develops embryologically before, and separate to, the secondary palate. Development is complete before 9 weeks and occurs from the incisive foramen forwards (postero-anteriorly). The primary palate comprises of the anterior alveolar ridge which houses the medial and lateral incisors, and extends to a point (like a “V”) to the incisive foramen posteriorly in the bony hard palate.
The secondary palate boundaries are from ....
from the incisive foramen to the uvula
When screening a child’s hearing, the usual frequencies are .....
500Hz, 1000Hz, 2000Hz, and 4000Hz
When 2 sound waves of the same frequency meet so that the compression of each wave combine, and the amplitude is increased, this is known as:
constructive interference