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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which pneumocyte proliferate during lung damage?
type II pneuomocytes
What is the indicator of fetal lung maturity?
lecithin:sphingomyelin >2.0
How are the pul a. and bronchus related to one another?
Right Anterior, Left Superior
What muscle is responsible for passive inspiration?
What muscle is responsible for passive expiration?
What muscles are responsible for inspiration during exercise?
external intercostals, scalene muscles, SCM
What muscles are responsible for expiration during exercise?
rectus abdominis, internal and external obliques, transversus abdominus, internal intercostals
Why do ACEI cause cough?
inc bradykinin which causes angioedema
What is residual volume?
air in lungs after max expiration
What is expiratory reserve volume?
ai that can still be breathed out after nl expiration
What is tidal volume?
air the moves into lung iwth each quiet inspiration
What is inspiratory reserve volume?
air in excess of tidal vol that moves inot lung on max inspiration
What is vital capacity?
tidal vol. inspiratory reserve vol. expiratory reserve vol.
What is functional reserve capacity?
reserve vol. expiratory reserve vol.
What is inspiratory capacity?
IRC and tidal vol
What is total lung capacit?
What cause a shift to the R of the O2 dissociation curve?
CO2, Acid/Altitude, DPG, Exercise, Temperature
What does a shift to the R allow?
facilitates unloading
What does a dec in pH cause?
shift to the right
What does an inc in pH cause?
shift to the left
What causes limited diffusion?
exercise, emphysema, fibrosis
What is the consequence of pul HTN?
cor pulmonale, right ventricular HF, JVD, edema, hepatomegaly
How is nl healthy gas exchange limited?
by perfusion
How is gas exchanged limited in sick or exercising people?
diffusion limited
What is nl pul artery pressure?
10-14 mmHg
What is pul HTN?
artery pressure greater than 25 or >35 when exercising
What causes primary PulHTN?
unknown, poor px
What causes secondary Pul HTN?
COPD, L to R shunt
What causes an inc in A-a gradient?
hypoxemia, sunting, high V/Q mismatch, fibrosis
Where is there wasted ventilation?
at apex
Where is there wasted perfusion?
base of lung
Where are ventilation and perfusion greater?
at the base of the lung
How is most CO2 transported?
bicarbonate 90%
What are the other two less prominent ways CO2 is transported in the blood?
bound to Hb, dissolved CO2
What is the Haldane effect?
oxygenation of Hb promotes dissoc. of CO2 from Hb
What is the Bohr effect?
inc in H, shifts curve to right, unloading O2 into tissues
What happens to the PFTs with COPD?
dec in FEV1/FVC
What is the Reid index?
gland depth/total thickness of bronchial wall
What is the Reid index in COPD?
What causes centriacinar emphysema?
What causes panacinar emphysema?
alpha1-antittypsin deficiency
Who dose paraseptal emphysema affect?
young, healthy males
What is paraseptal emphysema assoc. with?
bllae which can rupture causing a pneumothorax
What do the PFTs look like with restrictive lung disease?
FEV1/FVC >80%
What are the extrapul types of Restrictive lung dz?
poor muscular effort, porr structural apparatus
What are shipbuilders and plumbers at risk for?
asbestosis--mesothelioma, bronchogenic CA
Which lung CA has parathyroid-like activity?
Squamous Cell CA
What is the most common organism of lobar pneumonia?
What is the most common bug of bronchopneumonia?
s. aureus, h. flu, klebsiella, s. pyogenes
What is the most common bug of interstitial pneumonia?
viruses, RSV, adenociruses, mycoplasma, legionella, chlamydia
What causes transudate pleural effusions?
CHF, nephrotic syndrome, hepatic cirrhosis
What causes exudative pleural effusions?
malignancy, pneumonia, collagen vascular dz, trauma
Which type of pleural effusion has high ptn content?