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72 Cards in this Set

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Balanced solution= Parenteral solution that contains...
in proportions similar to those in plasma
Catabolism= The breakdown of...
chemical compounds by the body; an energy producing metabolic process
Colloid= A substance that does not...and is capable of
dissolve into a true solution...passing though a semipermeable membrane
Example of a colloid
Lactated Ringers
Dehydration= A deficit
of body water; can involve one fluid compartment or all three.
Hydrating Fluid= A solution of water, Carbohydrate, sodium, and chloride used to determine
adequacy of renal function
Hypertonic solution= a solution with an osmolarity
higher than that of plasma
Hypotonic solution
a solution with an osmolarity lower than that of plasma
Isotonic
A solution with the same osmolarity as plasma
Maintenance therapy= Fluids that provide
all nutrients necessary to meet daily patient requirements
Normal Saline
solution of salt 0.9% sodium chloride
Plasma substitute= a solution of a
synthetic substance, like dextran, used as a substitute for plasma
Replacement therapy= replenishment of losses when
maintenance can not be met and when patient is in a deficit state.
Restoration therapy= reconstruction of fluid and
electrolyte needs on a continuing basis until homeostasis returns.
The three objectives of I.V. therapy are
maintenance, replacement, and restoration
The functions of glucose in parenteral therapy include all of the following EXCEPT:
a. provides calories for energy
b. helps to prevent negative nitrogen balance
c. reduces catabolism of protein
d. serves as vehicle for blood transfusions
d. serves as a vehicle for blood transfusions
Maintenance solutions are used for patients who are:
a. ingesting nothing by mouth for a short period of time
b. experiencing hemorrhage
c. dehydrated from GI losses
d. experiencing draining fistulas
a. injesting nothing by mouth for a short period of time
What is the most commonly used multiple electrolyte solution?
Lactated Ringer's solution
What is the most common complication of dextran administration?
fluid overload
What is the purpose of a colloid solution?
to expand the interstitial compartment
Dextrose and hypotonic sodium chloride solutions are considered hydrating fluids because:
They maximize retention of potassium in the cell
The expected outcome of administering a hypertonic solution is to:
Hydrate cells
Which of the following solutions are used to prime the administration set when blood is to be administered?
0.9 percent sodium chloride
cannula
a tube or sheath used for infusing fluids
check valve
a device that functions to prevent retrograde solution flow; also called a backcheck valve
Coring
visible, as well as microscopic, particles of rubber bung displaced by the spike during piercing of the glass container or needle during access of implanted vascular access devices
Drip chamber
area of the I.V. tubing usually found under the spike where the solution drips and collects before running through the I.V. tubing
Drop factor
the number of drops needed to deliver 1ml of fluid
filter
a special porous device used to prevent the passage of undesired substances
gauge
size of cannula opening
hub
female connection point of an I.V. cannula where the tubing or other equipment attaches
implanted port
a catheter surgically placed into a vessel or body cavity and attached to a reservoir; the reservoir is placed under the skin
infusate
i.v. solution
lumen
the space within an artery, vein or catheter
macrodrip
drop factor of 10-20 drops equivalent to 1ml based on manufacturers specifications
microaggregate
microscopic collection of particles, such as platelets, leukocytes, and fibrin that can exist in stored blood
microdrip
drop factor of 60 drops/ml
midclavicular catheter
long(20-24in) i.v. access device made of a soft flexible vascular system and advanced to proximal axillary or subclavian veins
Midline
peripherally inserted catheter with the tip terminating in the proximal portion of the extremity, usually 6 inches in length
Patient controlled analgesia(PCA)
a drug administration system that allows the patient to self-adminster and regulate delivery of medication for pain control on a as needed basis
Peripherally inserted central catheter(PICC)
Long(20-24in) i.v. access device made of a soft flexible material inserted inot one of the superficial veins of the peripheral vascular system and advanced to the superior vena cava
Port
point of entry
prn
acccording to circumstances. Used to describe devices used for intermittent infusions
Psi
pounds per square inch; a measurement of pressure:1psi equals 50 mm Hg or 68 cm H2O
radiopaque
material used in i.v. catheter that can be identified by radiographic examination
rubber bung
stopper of a glass container composed of numerous substances including rubber, chemical particles, and cellulose fibers
stylet
needle or guide that is found inside a catheter used for vein penetration
tunneled catheter
a catheter designed to have a portion lie within a subcutaneous passage before exiting the body
when using a flexible plastic system, what type of administration set could you choose?
vented or nonvented; both work with this system
A 0.22-micron filter should be used when:
a. an additive has been combined with the solution
b. the patient is susceptible to infusion phlebitis
c. the infusion is delivered by the central route
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
The standard blood administration set has a clot filter of how many microns?
170
Microaggregate filters are used for
administration of whole blood and packed cells stored more than 5 days
a disadvantage of the glass system is that it:
is breakable and difficult to store
antimicrobial
an agent that destroys or prevents the development of microorganisms
bevel
slanted edge on opening of a needle or cannula device
dermis
the corium layer of the skin composed of connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, muscles, lymphatics, hair follicles, and sebaceous and sudoriferous glands
distal
farther from the heart; farthest from point of attachment(below the previous site of cannulation)
endothelial lining
a thin layer of cells lining the blood vessels and heart
epidermis
the outermost layer of skin covering the body, which is composed of epithelial cells and is devoid of blood vessels
micrabrasion
superficial break in skin integrity that may predispose the patient to infection+
prime
to fill the administration set with infusate for the first time
proximal
nearest to the heart;closet point to attachment(above the previous site of cannulation)
List four steps in maintaining patency of a saline locking device when giving a medication
1. check patency
2. flush with 1ml of sodium chloride
3. administer medication
4. flush with 1ml of sodium chloride using positve pressure
Before equipment setup and venipuncture, how many seconds of hand hygiene procedure with antimicrobial soap are recommended?
15-20
I.V. therapy labels should be on which areas?
a. catheter site, tubing, and solution container
b. tubing solution container, and chart
c. solution container, catheter site and patients armband
a. catheter site, tubing, and solution container
The order reads 1000ml of 5 percent dextrose and lactated ringers solution at 125 ml/h. Calculate the drip rate using 20 gtt factor tubing= ? gtt/min
42 drops gtt/min
what is the recommended frequency in which a patient receiving infusion therapy should be monitored?
systematic, ongoing and documented
14-to 16-gauge catheter choice:
multiple trauma, heart surgery, transplantation procedures
ONC(over the needle catheters)
18-gauge catheter choice:
major trauma or surgery, blood administration
ONC(over the needle catheters)
20-gauge catheter choice
minor trauma or surgery, blood administration
ONC(over the needle catheters)
22-gauge catheter choice:ONC(over the needle catheters)
pediatric use, person wtih small veins, administration of plateletes or plasma
ONC(over the needle catheters)
avoid using 22-gauge catheter when
adminstering packed red blood cells, whole blood, and antibotic therapy.
ONC(over the needle catheters)