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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the Major difference between elitism and pluralism?
Elite's believe that there is a select few that hold power

Puralists believe that multiple competing groups hold/influence where the power goes
What is an intrest group?
an organized group of ppl that make policy related appeals to the government
What is the difference between Autocracy, Oligarchy, and Democracy?
Autocracy - Single individual rule

Oligarchy - (elite theory) small group rules (military, landowners, wealthy)

Democracy - (pluralism) People rule by selection of government officials
What is the difference between Representative Democracy and Direct Democracy?
Rep - A select few are voted into a power position to represent the public in the gov.

Direct - A majority vote by all is needed to make a decision
What is the difference between Initiative, Referendums and Recall elections?
Initiatives - a petition signed by voters which can place a proposal on the STATE ballot

Referendums - where the electorate must approve decision of the legislature before becoming part of the STATE CONSTITUTION

Recall Elections - a recall election put into play by petition to oust an incumbent
What are the problems with public opinion polls?
The sample that the polls are taken from often dont give a fair representation of the full public opinion
What are the key elite and pluralist arguments?
Elites - anti-democratic, unequal access (money is all deciding factor)

Pluralists - pressure groups give useful functions (info givers, policy formulators)
What was Aristotle’s roles in developing our constitution?
He was the first figure to make a distinction between law and constitutional law
What is the difference between monarchies, aristocracies and democracies?
Monarchies - rule by 1

Aristocracies - rule by few

Democracy - rule by many
What did the Magna Carta do?
1215 established "Habeas corpus" -There must be some sort of due process of law
What did the 1st and 2nd continental congresses do?
1st (1774) - Boycotted british trade and formed an army

2nd (1775) - Established national army under George Washington
What were the Articles of Confederation and what were some problems?
The articles developed some primary standards for the country like declare war, coin money, send/recieve ambassadors.

The problem is that it left too much power to the states
Why was Shay’s rebellion important?
A rebelion over federal taxes and debts which helped show how there needed to be more central power
What are the differences between the Virginia plan, New Jersey plan and the
Connecticut compromise?
Virginia plan - a creation of a new national gov. consisting of a bicameral system

New Jersey plan - Favors small states, giving equal representation (each state 1 vote)

Connecticut Compromise - a joint between the virginia and NJ plan having a senate (2 mem each state) and rep house (based on pop)
What was the 3/5 compromise?
That the southern slaves would count as 3/5th's of a person for both taxation and representation
What was the debate between the Federalist and Anti-Federalist about?
Federalists support the constitution and published federalist papers

Anti-Federalists opposed a strong central gov, and argued that the constitution needed a Bill of Rights.
Which branches of government were popularly elected?
The house of representatives and the Senate
Which nation has the oldest written constitution?
United fucking states of AMerica
What was the voter qualification compromise?
Owning property was a huge key in voting and was ruled that ownership of land was not necessary to vote.
What is Judicial Review?
Reviewing the constitution to make a decision on subjects, that give a final say on the constitution
What is the difference between Federal, Unitary, and Confederal governmental
Federal - Divided powers in the central gov, regional, and subdivisional

Unitary System - All powers are left to the national gov. subnational groups created by central gov

Confederate - The National gov exists and operates only at the direction of the subdivisional govs
What are the advantages and disadvantages of federalism?
Advantages - Dispersion of power, keeps gov closer, state/local offices can experiment with policy

Disadvantages - Problems w/ coordiation amung lvls of gov, Lack in uniformity of laws across states
What is Devolution?
Bringing power back to the states (clinton liked devolution)
What are Federal mandates?
a requirement in federal legislation that applies certain rules
What are the powers delegated to the federal government?, And what powers are
Delegated - Expressed powers (written in constitution), Necessary and proper clause - implied powers established by McCulloch v. Maryland
What are the powers delegated to the state government? And what powers are
Reserved Powers - Powers reserved for states, regulated intrastate commerce

Powers Prohibited - No entering treaties w/ other countries, coin money, grant title of nobility
What are concurrent powers?
Shared powers bet. State and National gov, taxation, borrow $$, charter banks
What is the supremacy clause?
States cannot use powers/concurrent powers to counter national
Why was McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) important?
It gave the national government the power to used the Necessary and proper clause
Why was Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) important?
The Commerce CLause - Congress has the power to regulate trade amungst states
What is the difference between dual federalism, cooperative federalism, new
federalism, and competitive federalism?
Dual - National and State gov are more or less equals

Cooperative - National and State gov should work togeather to solve problems

New - Involves returning certian powers back to the states

Competitive - State and local gov compete for businesses and and citizens (offer tax breaks)
What case helped to impliment the Gun-free school zones act?
US v. Lopez 1995
What case helped to impliment the Violence against womens act
US v. Morrison 2000
What is fiscal federalism?
A system of transfer payments or grants from the national gov to state/local in order to help inforce national rules and standards
What is the difference between civil liberties and civil rights?
Civil Liberties - are limitations on gov action specifiying what the gov cannot do to you

Civil Rights - What the gov must do to ensure equal protection under the law of all Americans
What is the difference between Writ of habeas corpus, bills of attainder, and
ex post facto laws
Writ of Habeas Corpus - An order requireing an official to bring a prisoner into court and explain to a judge why the prisoner is being held (due process of law)

Bills of Attainder - Legislative acts that directly punish a specifically named individual or group without a trail (azn americans WW2)

Prohibition of ex post facto laws - Laws punishing an individual for committing an act that was legal when it was committed but has since become a crime
What did Barron v. Baltimore (1833) do?
It allowed the Bill of Rights to be applied not only to the national gov. but also the state gov.
What did Gitlow v. New York (1925) do?
The start of the use of the Due Process Law (passed in 1868 - 14th amendment)
What is the incorporation doctrine?
The process of applying the Bill of Rights to the States
What is the difference between the Establishment clause and the Free exercise
Establishment - mandates that gov can neither promote nor discriminate agains religous beliefs

Free Exercise Clause - No type of religious practice can be prohibited or restricted by the gov.
What is prohibited by the free exercise clause?
anything legal defined by national and state law
What is the constitutional status of pray in schools?
No prayer in PUBLIC schools
Issues surrounding the Evolution versus creationism (intelligent design) debate
The Documentary “Friends of God.”
Evolution - Darwinism, evolution largely reflecst the combined action of random mutation and natural selection

Intelligent Design - God's creation