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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define the Anatomical Position
-Body standing erect
-Eyes facing forward
-Legs parallel
-Palms of hands facing forward
Understand the meaning of basic anatomical terms of relationship, comparison, laterality and movement
Planes of Space:
:equal right and left halves
Differentiate between "medial" and "median"
Medial is close to or near the midline of the body while median is on the midsaggital line (on the middle)
What does lateral mean
Position away from the midline of the body
What does proximal mean
Position close to the point of attachment or origin
What does distal mean
position away from the point of attachment or origin
What is "internal" vs "external"
Internal is used similar to deep-position away from the surface

External is similar to superficial: position near the surface
What does ipsilateral mean
Pertaining to being located on the same side
What does contralateral mean
Pertaining to being located on the opposite side
Flexion vs extension
Flexion is to decrease the angle between two bones

Extension is to increase the angle between two bones
Abduction vs Adduction
Abduction is movement away from the midline

Adduction is movement toward the midline
Rotation vs Circumduction
Rotation is movement around the longitudanal axis of a bone

Circumduction is complex movement around a fixed point involving the sequence of flexion, abduction, extension, adduction
Pronation vs supination
Pronation is movement of the forearm so that the posterior side of the hand is facing up

Supination is movement of the forearm so that the anterior part of the hand is facing upard (back to anatomical position)
Eversion vs Inversion
Eversion is turning the sole of the foot (plantar surface)outward

Inversion is turning sole of foot inward
Dorsiflexion vs Plantarflexion
Dorsiflexion is movment of the foot so that the toes point cranially

Plantarflexion is movement of the toes so that they point caudally
Opposition vs Reposition
Opposition is movement whereby the pad of the thumb touches the pads of the other digits

Reposition is movement of the thumb back into the anatomical position
Elevation vs Depression
Elevation is lifting of a part

Depression is pulling down of a part
Protrusion vs Retraction
Protrusion is pushing a part forward

Retraction is moving a part backward
-Dermis and epidermis
-Nails, hair, sebaceous glands, sweat glands
-innervated by cutaneous nerves that sends sensory info to the CNS
-Sweat glands in the skin contribute to its function as a thermoregutory organ
What are the two types of fascia?
Superficial fascia: located just underneath the skin and composed of loose areolar connective tissue

Deep fascia: consists of denser connective tissue. Invests the muscles and tendons. Extends in between the muscles to attach to bone thus forming intermuscular septa that serve to form muscle compartments particularly in the limbs
What are tendons
Skeletal muscles usually attach to bones by structures called tendons (dense connective tissue)
Differentiate "origin" vs "insertion"
Origin is the proximal point of attachment while insertion is the distal point of attachment. The fleshy belly is in between
What is an aponeurosis
A broad flat tendon of attachment of a muscle
What is a raphe
It is the interdigitation of the insertions of muscles on each other
How can muscle fibers be arranged in terms of their points of attachment
Either parallel or obliquely to their points of attachment

-Those with a parallel arrangement have a greater degree of pull

-When muscle fibers attach obliquely to their tendons, they confer a feather-like appearance to the muscle and muscle can be said to be unipennate, bipennate, or multipennate
What are joints
Points where two or more bones come together
What are the three main classifications of joints?
Fibrous joints: immoveable joints where the bones are united by fibrous connective tissue (sutures of the skull)

Cartilaginous Joints: slightly moveable joints where the bones are united by cartilage (intervertebral discs)

Synovial Joints: freely moveable joints
Synovial Joints
-Bones are covered by articular cartilage
-Joint caviy contains a synovial membrane that lubricates the joint
-Joint capsule is usually reinforced by ligaments
-Most numerous
-Classified on the basis of amount of movement possible and the shapes
Further classification of synovial joints based on shape and amount of movement
-Uniaxial joints: movement in only one plane of space
-Biaxial joints: movement in two planes of space
-Multiaxial joints: permits movement in all 3 planes of space
Further classification of Uniaxial joints (type of synovial joint)
Plane (gliding) joints: articular surfaces are flat (sternoclavicular)
Hinge: flexion and extension (knee, elbow)
Pivot: One bone rotates around another (atlantoaxial, radioulnar)
Further classification of Biaxial joints (type of synovial joint)
-Condyloid-"knuckle joints"-permit flexion/extension and adduction/abduction (metacarpophalyngeal joints)
-Ellipsoid-oval elipsoid surface fits into oval concavity to permit flexion/extension and abduction/adduction (radiocarpal joint)
Further classification of multiaxial joint (type of synovial joint)
-Saddle joints:reciprocal bones resemble a saddle on a horses back (1st carpometacarpal joint)
-Ball and socket joints-shoulder and hip
What determines stability of joints?
-Congruence of articular surfaces-how tightly the bonds fit together
-Muscle tone
What are bursae?
Blind synovial pouches that intervene between bone and skin and between bone and bone to facilitate movement at joints
What are mucous membranes?
Name given to interior lining of the hollow organs of the body. Consist of lamina propria, epithelium, muscularis mucosa
What are serous membranes?
Line the body cavities and cover visceral organs
-Consists of mesothelium (simple squamous epithelium) and underlying connective tissue