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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What size the the pleura cavity in adults?
the pleura cavity is the space between the ______ and the ______
-visceral pleura
-parietal pleura
which pleura is applied to the lung itself?
visceral pleura
what are the 4 divisions of the parietal pleura?
1) costal
2) madiastinal
3) diaphragmatic
4) pleura capula
what is NOT invaded by the lungs?
costodiaphragmatic recess
what supplies blood to the costal pleura?
segmental vessels of thoracic wall (intercostal aa)
what supplies blood to visceral pleura and lung tissue?
bronchial aa
what are the bronchial aa branching from?
the aorta
(or from 3rd intercostal a. on the right)
which pleura is sensitive to pain, and which pleura is not?
-parietal pleura is sensitive
-visceral pleura is not
if there is irritation in the costal pleura (part of the parietal pleura), where is this pain felt?
in the chest wall
Irritation of diaphragmatic or mediastinal pleura (part of parietal pleura) causes pain where?
in the neck
What nerves have to do with pain felt in the neck after irritation of mediastinal pleura or diaphragmatic pleura?
-supraclavicular n (C3&C4)
-phrenic n (C3-C5)
What is it called when air enters the pleural cavity?
during pneumothorax, there is a loss of ______ and the lung _____ due to its ______
-negative pressure
What is it called when blood collects in the pleural cavity?
how high does the pleura rise?
as high as the neck of the first rib (above jugular notch)
costodiaphragmatic recess is very _____ and keeps with ______ of diaphragm
-dome shape of diaphragm
What are the 3 surfaces of the lungs?
1) costal
2) medial
3) diaphragmatic
the medial surface of the lungs includes what other surfaces?
1) mediastinal
2) vertebral
How many lobes does the right lung have, and what are they called?
-3 lobes
-superior, middle, and inferior
How many lobes does the left lung have, and what are they called?
-2 lobes
-superior and inferior
What are the fissues of the right lung?
What are the fissues of the left lung?
The oblique fissues define which lobes?
lower (basal) lobes
The horizontal fissues definte which lobes?
upper and middle lobes
lingula means:
"tongue of the lung"
where is the lingula found?
under the lobe of left lung
-in the same position of middle lobe on right lung
where do the lungs recieve air from? (generally)
the trachea branches into:
primary bronchus
which lung are foreign objects usually inhaled into, and why?
right lung, because the primary bronchus is larger
what do primary brochus divide into, and what do those divide into?
-secondary (lobar) bronchi
-tertiary (segmental) bronchi
How many tertiary/segmental bronchi are on each lung?
-10 on right
-8 on left
what makes up the root?
structures that enter and leave the lung
what does the root join?
the hilus
what lies posteriorly to the root?
the bronchus
what lies superior to the root?
pulminary artery
what lies inferior to the root?
pulminary veins
what is the saying to remember where the bronchi, pulminary artery, and veins are?
"bronchi to the back, a. above v."
what is below the root?
pulminary ligament
what does the pulminary ligament attach to?
the mediastinal pleura
what must be severed in order to remove the lung from the chest?
the pulminary ligament
what are bronchopulmonary segments?
segments of the lobe that the tertiary bronchi go to
each pulmonary segment revieves:
air w/ its own segmental bronchi
what does each bronchopulmonary segment recieve via pulmonary arteries?
deoxygenated blood
how does the oxygenated blood leave the bronchopulmonary segments, and where does it go?
-pulmonary veins
-right atrium
each pulmonary vein only drains one bronchopulmonary segment
false, onee vein often drains more than one segment
major impressions on the Right lung:
1) groove for esophagus
2) cardiac impression
3) grooves for brachiocephalic v.
4) groove for superior vena cava
5) groove for arch of azygos
major impressions on the Left Lung
1) groove for subclavian artery
2) groove for aorta
3) cardiac impression
What causes air to go into lungs? (ventilation)
negative pressure within pleural cavities
quiet inspiration is caused by:
contraction of diaphragm
what kind of muscle is the diaphragm made of, and what does it do when it contracts?
-skeletal muscle
what is each half of the diaphragm innervated by?
phrenic n.
what ventral rami is the phrenic n. from?
ventral rami C3-C5
what does the phrenic n. rest on?
scalenes and thorax
what does the phrenic n. lie between?
mediastinal pleura and pericardium
what kind of joint is the 1st costal cartilage?
what kind of joints are most of the ribs with the sternum and vertebrae?
synovial joints allow what kind of movement?
volentary movement
movement at costotransverse joints suggests what about the upper ribs?
upper ribs carry sternum anteriorly during inspirtation
movement at costotransverse joints suggests what about the lower ribs?
they flare out during inspiration, increasing lateral dimension of chest
what kind of "mechanism" are the upper ribs compared to?
"pump handle" mechanism
what kind of "mechanism" are the lower ribs compared to?
"bucket handle" mechanism
Quiet inspiration involves contractions of these three muscles:
1) diaphragm
2) scalnenes
3) internal intercostals
how much tidal volume does the diaphragm make up?
about 80-85%
where do the scalenes attach?
1st and 2nd ribs
What muscles are involved in forced inspiration?
1) diaphragm, scalenes, internal intercostals
2) upper trapezius
3) sternocleidomastoid
4) scapular stabalizers (levator scapulae, rhomboids, trapezius)
5) serratus posterior superior
6) levators costarum
After a race, what do you do and why?
lean foward and prop upper limbs on something to stabalize/elevate the scapulae (like the scapular stabalizers)
what does tracheal cartilage do?
helps to prevent collapse of airway during rapid inspiration
expiration is a ______ process, which has to do with _______.
-"possitive" process
-elasticity of the chest wall
what do abdominal muscles have to do with forced expiration?
they assist in increasing intra-abdominal & intrathoracic pressure which force air out of lungs
what other muscle besides the abdominal muscles contribute to forced expiration?
serratus posterior inferior
what is a mechanism used for those with pulmonary disease?