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159 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Behavior as determined by repressed sexual and aggressive urges
Behavior as product of events in the environment
Humans as striving to reach full potential
Emphasis on conscious thought, memory, etc...
Behavior as a product of evolutionary change.
Behavior as determined by the culture of which one is a member
Biological Psych
Explains behavior in terms of biological factors (genes, brain structures)
Cognitive Psych
Explains how information about the world is acquired, retained and used
Developmental Psych
Studies how thought and behavior change as people age, and why
Social and Personality Psych
Explains behavior in terms of the situations in which people find themselves, and in terms of their personality.
Clinical Psych
Tries to understand and treat abnormalities in thought and behavior
Neuroscience Psych
Tries to understand the links between brain activity and behavior.
Titchener and structuralism
Scientific study of mind and behavior. Brain reduces to simple sensations, combines part to a whole.
James and functionalism
Studies learned habits and adaptation to environment to function effectively. It studies the dunction/purpose of an act.
Determinism vs. Free Will
Psychology is deterministic (behavior is the result of or is determined by specific causal factors that are potentially knowable. Behavior is lawful and patterned)
Scientific Method
Form hypothesis, test hypothesis, analyze results, draw conclusion, share results
Reverse causality problem
X can cause Y or Y can cause X
Third variable problem
Y and X caused by Z
Variables of interest
Translation of the variable of interest into a form that can be measured clearly
Double-blind control
Experimenter and subject do not know who is getting what
Internal validity
Extent to which one can conclude that the IV has caused the DV
An extra unexpected variable that confuses the interpretation
Demand characteristics
Cues in an experimental setting that influence the participants perception of what is expected of them, and that influences the subjects behavior
Experimental control
V's manipulated, all else held constant
External validity
Extent to which results can be generalized to other situations and other people
Informed consent
Participant is told ahead of tiem ewhat to expect, and agrees to participate
Consistency/dependability of behavioral data from testing
Whether the info produced by research/test accurately measures the variable
Self-report measures
Verbal answers to question
Behavioral measures
Ways to study overt actions/behaviors and recordable reactions
Naturalistic observations
Observation of behavior in natural environment
Case sturdy
An experiment with one or a small group of subjects
Galton (mid 1800s)
Father of behavior genetics. Studied eminence and pedigree.
Experimented on garden peas. Found pairs of "factors" aka genes that determined offspring characteristics
Strand of DNA (23 pairs)
Segment of DNA with instructions for a protein
Gene is recessive and only on the X chromosome so it is more likely to be expressed in males because they only have one X while women have 2 Xs
Genetic makeup
Observable characteristics
Percentage of variability of a characteristic accounted for by genetics
Phenlyketonuria (pku)
A recessive genetic disease involving a malfunctioning enzyme. On a normal diet, toxic chemicals build up = mental retardation, but with a special diet the buildup is prevented (intervention).
Evolutionary theory
Environmental problems, competition for scarce resources. Selection of fittest PHENOTYPE. Depends on reproductive success
Reproductive advantage
Future generations come to resemble those who are more "reproductively fit"
Natural selection
The variation allows the individual to reproduce more successfully than those lacking the variation, not survival of the fittest
ratio of brain size to body mass
Ability to walk upright
Evolutionary Psychology
A field that relates social behaviors of a species to its biology, particularly to its evolutionary history
Sexual strategies theory (Buss and Schmitt 1993)
Concerns the mating strategies adopted by women and men. Women and men can adopt either short-term or long-term mating strategy. Human mating as inherently strategy.
Natural selection as amaoral. Men choose long-term, women short-term
Central Nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
Signal does not go right to brain, goes to motor neuron
Peripheral Nervous system
Extension of nerve cells reaching out from CNA
Somatic nervous system
Info to and from skin and voluntary muscles
Autonomic nervous system
Controls heart, stomach, other involuntary muscles
Mobilizes lots of energy, "fight or flight" response
Slows down for maintanence, digestion, growth and reproduction
Above the spinal cord
Controls vegetative functions like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure
Sends messages from the brain stem to the cerebellum
Reticular formation
Arouses cerebral cortex, keeps brain awake during sleep
Coordinates movement, shifts attention
Sensory relay to cerebral cortex
Limbic system
mediates behaviors, emotions, memory
Feeding, feeling, fighting, fucking
Emotional control, memory, threat/danger
Cerebral cortex
Senses and motor skills
Parietal love
behind frontal lobe by central sulcus and in front of occipital lobe, has the sensory cortex
Temporal lobe
auditory, at temples
Frontal lobe
In front of brain, contains broca's area and motor cortex
Broca's Area
Primary motor cortex
receives motor information
Association areas
make sense of the stimuli received
Regular association
part of brain that receives the info from the hand is next to the part of the brain that receives info from the arm
Proportional representation
There is a larger area for the fingers than the arm because it makes more sense
Contralateral projection
Areas control opposite side of the body
Corpus callosum
A thick band of axons that connect the two hemispheres
Effect of split brains
If word is on right side, it goes to left brain, cant say what they saw but they can write it with left hand. If the word is on the left side it goes to the right brain and they can say what the word is but they cant write it
Endocrine system
Network of glands that manufacture and secrete hormones
Chemical signals
Cell body (soma)
big ball part of neuron
Thin tree-like branches that come off soma and receive messages from the axon
One long brance coming off the soma, sends messages to other neurons
Terminal button
On the end of the axon, it contains the neurotransmitters that are released when it binds at a synapse
Myelin sheath wraps around the axon to insulate it, and prevent any charage from leaking out as the action potential goes down it
Action potential
A firing down the axon by ions entering and leaving the cell that changes the charge on the cell
Resting potential
fluid inside polarized compare to fluid outsid
Excitatory input
Fire action portential
Inhibitory input
Don't fire action potential
All-or-none law
The size of the action potential is unaffected by the intensity of stimulation above the threshold
Refractory period
Point after action potential when another action potential can not be started
The gap where the terminal button of the axon meets the dendrites
Synaptic transmission
Terminal button releases neurotransmitters to be received in the receptors in the post-synaptic dendrite
A chemical message interchanged between neurons
Presynaptic neuron
The neuron that is sending the message
Postsynaptic neuron
The neuron that is receiving the message
Changes in the performance of the brain
The production of new brain cells from stem cells
Perceptual organization
The stage when a percept of the stimulus is deveolped
stage when meaning is assigned to the perception
Distal Stimulus
An object out in the world
Proximal stimulus
Patterns of stimulation on sensory apparatus that emanate from distal stimulus; sensations
Conversion of physical energy to neural impulses
Electromagnetic spectrum
Wavelengthes of 400-700nm
Focuses Light
Where light enters
Muscle that changes opening of the pupil
accommodates close/far objects (changes in thickness)
In back of eye, has photoreceptors
detailed vision, in center, three colors (blue, green, red)
Sensitive, not specific, for dark, 90% of receptors, in peripheral
Concentrated cones in center of the retina
Dark adaptation
neurons only need a few rods to fire to see dim light
Optic nerve
axons of ganglion cells
Bipolar cells
nerve cells that combine impulses from many receptors and transmit the results to gangliion cells
Ganglion cells
Cells in the visual system that integrate impulses from many bipolar cells in a single firing rate
Visual cortex
where visual stimulus info is processed
Young-Helmholtz theory of color vision
Perception depends on firing of three cones, trichromatic
Opponent-process theory of color vision
Bipolar cells organize visual information into paired opposites
Negative afterimage
Cones get fatigued after prolonged exposure so opposite cone fires stronger than the tired cone.
Retinal disparity
The farther from an object, the bigger the difference that the two eyes see
The more your eyes turn in, the closer the object
Relative size
Larger objects seem closer
Texture gradient
Texture is coarse for close objects, fine for far objects
Closer objects overlap farther objects
Height in plane
near objects are low in plabe, far ones are high
Feature detectors (aka receptive fields)
Specific neurons in brain respond only to very simple stimuli
Gestalt Psychologoy
Focus is on overall patterns of an image
Reversible figures
background and foreground are different images
Grouping by what is closest
Grouping by what is most similar
Good continuation
Seeing lines are continuous even when interrupted
Filling in gaps to make a whole
Common fate
Things that move together belong together
Cultural/Contextual effects on perception
People from rural areas less susceptible to optical illusions, people with less education are less familiar with such clues
Changes in pressure from vibrating objects in a combination of sine wavess
High or low sound determined by frequency
Physical intensity detemined by amplitude
Components of complex sound waves
Auditory cortex
Area of the brain that receives auditory info (temporal lobe)
Sound localization
The auditory processes that allow the spatial origins of environmental sounds
Never impulses to olfactory bulb
Chemical substances used within a species to signal sexual receptivity, danger, territory bounds, and food sources
Taste buds
Clusters of taste receptors
Cutaneous senses
Nerve endings that produce sensations of pressure, heat, cold
Gate theory of pain
Cells in the spinal cord act as gates, interrupting and blocking pain signals and letting others get through
Control the experience of pain, reduces pain
Vestibular sense
Tells you how your body (esp head) is oriented with respect to gravity
Kinesthetic sense
provides constant sensory feedback about what the body is doing during motor activities
Goal-directed selection
The choices to make reflect your goals
Stimulus-driven capture
Stimulus in environment capture your attention
Dichotic listening
An experimental technique in which a different auditory stimulus is simultaneously presented to each ear
Perceptual constancies
People see the world as invariable, constant and stable despite changes in stimulation of sensory receptors
The ability to perceive the true size of an object despite variations in the size of its retinal image
When you perceive an objects actual shape even when its slanted away making the retinal image different from the object
Tendency to perceive whiteness, grayness or blackness of objects as constant across changing levels of illumination
Subliminal perception
Perception in the absence of concurrent phenomenal experience
Subliminal influence
The effect of words or images that are perceived subliminally