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### 85 Cards in this Set

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 All animals obtain energy by oxidizing organic molecules in a process called Cellular Respiration Energy burned/used/needed each day Daily Energy Requirement Energy contained in food eaten each day Daily Energy Intake The energy content of food is traditionally measured in units called Calories Continnues 24 hours a day using energy at a constant rate no matter what you are doing. It is the minimum rate of energy use required to stay alive. Basal Metabolic Rate Whenever you do something other than lying flat on your back, you burn more energy than the BMR Energy for Physical Activity The muscles of the digestive system require energy for chewing, swallowing, and especially for peristalsis. Energy to Digest Food Basal Metabolic Rate + Energy for Physical Activity + Energy to Digest Food = Daily Energy Requirement Three factors that determine Basal Metabolic Rate are Sex, bosy size, age Body size is a combination of heigh and weight To calculate Energy for Physical Activity, you need to know three things: the time in minutes you did each time of activity the rate at which each activity burns energy your body weight in kilograms To get Calories burned, you must multiply minutes times the rate times body weight in kilograms Energy for Physical Activity = minutes x rate x body weigh (KG) Energy to Digest Food= 0.1(Energy for Physical Activity + BMR) Four types of Basal Metabolic Activities are sitting, lying, standing, studying Name three ways to estimate ideal body weight bone-muscle size percent body fat sex, height, and frame size Estimating ideal weight using the bone-muscle size strategy, one must measure diameter of wrist, forearm, calf, and ankle Estimating ideal weight using percent body fat, one must use the follow equation (considered for male) 100-%body fat x actual body weight x 1.19 Estimating Ideal Weight using this method, one must multiply their height by a certain number that is determined by the size of their body frame and whether they are male or female. sex, height, and frame size Life is a series of chemical reactions that constantly uses energy and therefore constantly requires input of new energy Metabolism Why does the pulse rate change when you exercise The pulse rate goes up to pump the blood faster to supply the oxygen needed for cellular respiration to have ATP Most common of three tpes of blood cells Erythrocytes Least common of three types of blood cells Lymphocytes Normal/Average pulse rate? 70-72 beats/minute What is normal, average, relaxed blood pressure? 125/70 Which valve prevents back flow from left ventrical into left atrium? mitral Which valve prevents backflow from aorta to heart? aortic Which valve prevents backflow from pulmonary trunk into the heart? pulmonary Which valve precents backflow from right ventrical into right atrium? tricuspid Why doesn't the body fill up with oxygen? Oxygen is used in cellular respiration which is used to make ATP for engergy. The oxygen is used up and therefore doesn't allow the body to fill up with oxygen. Why and how does CO2 change the pH of water? CO2 creates carbonic acid which makes the pH go down because acid has a low pH. pH of blood coming to lung should be Low (>pH7) The lungs (raise/lower) blood pH Raise How/why do the lungs change blood pH Because the lungs get rid of CO2 and increase the level of O2. So with less CO2, the blood is less acidic and thus has a higher pH. Type of molecule especially sensitive to pH protein What are the consequences of excess CO2 for body chemistry? Very low pH, which causes some of the body functions to shut down--this could lead to death. Plant molecules that is a major source of glucose Starch List the steps in digesting Starch Starch-amylase-maltose-maltase-glucose List the features of the smalle intestine that facilitate absorption villi, microvilli Which heart chamber pumps into the mesenteric artery The left ventricle When the hepatic vein joins the inferior vena cava, the glucose concentration increases/stays the same/decreases Decreases Is oxygen concentration high or low in the mesenteric artery? High Is oxygen concentration high or low in the hepatic portal vein? Low Is oxygen concentration high or low in the hepatic vein? Low Two blood vessels with same glucose concentration both before and after eating are: mesenteric artery and hepatic vein The vessel with the most glucose after eating Hepatic portal vein What is the source of glucose for the hepatic portal vein? the intestine The vessel with the least glucose before eating hepatic vein Compared to the hepatic vein, the mesenteric artery has more/same/less glucose More After eating, liver cells are making/breaking down glycogen making Between meals, liver cells are making/breaking down glycogen breaking down Which hormone is controlling liver function after eating? insulin Which hormone is controlling liver funcction between meals? glucagon Explain how the liver controls (regulates) glucose supply The amount of glucose coming into the liver through the hepatic portal vein is extremely variable, but the amount of glucose coming out of the lier in the hepatic vein is constant. Cells in the liver can link together numerous glucose molecules into a large molecules called glycogen. The nitrogen containing part of an amino acid is the amino group Each urea molecule =____ amino acids prepared for cellular respiration Two If a person i sburning a lot of fat, the pH of their blood serum will be higher/normal/lower Lower On an extreme high-protein low-carb diet, blood will contain high concentrations of ________ and ________ urea and ketones On an extreme high-protein low-carb diet, blood pH will be higher/normal/lower Lower Why do the kidney excrete glucose? When there is too much glucose in the blood, the kidneys work to get rid of excess. What is abnormal in urine from a person on a high-protein low-car diet? very high ketones and low pH What abnormalities are present in urine of all three people with health problems? very high ketones and low pH What abnormalities are present in urine of all three people with health problems? high ketones and low pH Why does anorexia weaken the heart? Because you begin to break down your muscles to get ATP--therefore, the heart loses its strength. Why is there less oxygen in exhaled air? When you breathe in you inhale oxygen, the oxygen is used for cellular respiration. The waste products of cellular respiration is CO2 which is released when we exhale. Means close or closer to the body Proximal Means far or farther from the body Distal Means toward the front or belly side of the body Ventral Means toward the back side of the body Dorsal Means toward the middle of the body Medial Means toward the sides of the body Lateral Forms along the central nervous system Axial Skeleton Major division of axial skeleton are skull, jaw, backbone, ribs, and sternum The bones of the arms and legs and bones called the girdles that support the limbs Appendicular skeleton Originates along the sternum and inserts on the humerus Pectoralis Originates on the pectoral girdle and inserts on the humerus Deltoid Originates along the middle of the back above the lumbar vertebrae and inserts on the proximal end of the humerus Latissimus Dorsi Originates from two points on the scapula and inserts on the radius just in front of the elbow Biceps Originates on fom the scapula and the back surface of the humerus and inserts on part of the ulna that projects in bakc of the elbow. Triceps Orginate from the pelvic girdle, sacrum, and coccyz and inserts on the greater tronchanter of the femur Gluteal Muscles Orginates from the pelvic girdle and inserts on the tibia Rectus Femoris Originates on the front surface of the femur and inserts on the proximal end of the tibia Quadriceps Femoris Group Originates from teh pelvic girdles and inserts on the back of the tibia just below the knee. Hamstring Group Orginates from the sides of the femur just above the knee and inserts on the calcaneum. Gastrocnemius Originates along the front of the tibia and inserts on the first metatarsal and the adjacent tarsals. Tibialis Anterior