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85 Cards in this Set

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All animals obtain energy by oxidizing organic molecules in a process called
Cellular Respiration
Energy burned/used/needed each day
Daily Energy Requirement
Energy contained in food eaten each day
Daily Energy Intake
The energy content of food is traditionally measured in units called
Calories
Continnues 24 hours a day using energy at a constant rate no matter what you are doing. It is the minimum rate of energy use required to stay alive.
Basal Metabolic Rate
Whenever you do something other than lying flat on your back, you burn more energy than the BMR
Energy for Physical Activity
The muscles of the digestive system require energy for chewing, swallowing, and especially for peristalsis.
Energy to Digest Food
Basal Metabolic Rate + Energy for Physical Activity + Energy to Digest Food =
Daily Energy Requirement
Three factors that determine Basal Metabolic Rate are
Sex, bosy size, age
Body size is a combination of
heigh and weight
To calculate Energy for Physical Activity, you need to know three things:
the time in minutes you did each time of activity
the rate at which each activity burns energy
your body weight in kilograms
To get Calories burned, you must
multiply minutes times the rate times body weight in kilograms
Energy for Physical Activity =
minutes x rate x body weigh (KG)
Energy to Digest Food=
0.1(Energy for Physical Activity + BMR)
Four types of Basal Metabolic Activities are
sitting, lying, standing, studying
Name three ways to estimate ideal body weight
bone-muscle size
percent body fat
sex, height, and frame size
Estimating ideal weight using the bone-muscle size strategy, one must measure
diameter of wrist, forearm, calf, and ankle
Estimating ideal weight using percent body fat, one must use the follow equation (considered for male)
100-%body fat x actual body weight x 1.19
Estimating Ideal Weight using this method, one must multiply their height by a certain number that is determined by the size of their body frame and whether they are male or female.
sex, height, and frame size
Life is a series of chemical reactions that constantly uses energy and therefore constantly requires input of new energy
Metabolism
Why does the pulse rate change when you exercise
The pulse rate goes up to pump the blood faster to supply the oxygen needed for cellular respiration to have ATP
Most common of three tpes of blood cells
Erythrocytes
Least common of three types of blood cells
Lymphocytes
Normal/Average pulse rate?
70-72 beats/minute
What is normal, average, relaxed blood pressure?
125/70
Which valve prevents back flow from left ventrical into left atrium?
mitral
Which valve prevents backflow from aorta to heart?
aortic
Which valve prevents backflow from pulmonary trunk into the heart?
pulmonary
Which valve precents backflow from right ventrical into right atrium?
tricuspid
Why doesn't the body fill up with oxygen?
Oxygen is used in cellular respiration which is used to make ATP for engergy. The oxygen is used up and therefore doesn't allow the body to fill up with oxygen.
Why and how does CO2 change the pH of water?
CO2 creates carbonic acid which makes the pH go down because acid has a low pH.
pH of blood coming to lung should be
Low (>pH7)
The lungs (raise/lower) blood pH
Raise
How/why do the lungs change blood pH
Because the lungs get rid of CO2 and increase the level of O2. So with less CO2, the blood is less acidic and thus has a higher pH.
Type of molecule especially sensitive to pH
protein
What are the consequences of excess CO2 for body chemistry?
Very low pH, which causes some of the body functions to shut down--this could lead to death.
Plant molecules that is a major source of glucose
Starch
List the steps in digesting Starch
Starch-amylase-maltose-maltase-glucose
List the features of the smalle intestine that facilitate absorption
villi, microvilli
Which heart chamber pumps into the mesenteric artery
The left ventricle
When the hepatic vein joins the inferior vena cava, the glucose concentration increases/stays the same/decreases
Decreases
Is oxygen concentration high or low in the mesenteric artery?
High
Is oxygen concentration high or low in the hepatic portal vein?
Low
Is oxygen concentration high or low in the hepatic vein?
Low
Two blood vessels with same glucose concentration both before and after eating are:
mesenteric artery and hepatic vein
The vessel with the most glucose after eating
Hepatic portal vein
What is the source of glucose for the hepatic portal vein?
the intestine
The vessel with the least glucose before eating
hepatic vein
Compared to the hepatic vein, the mesenteric artery has more/same/less glucose
More
After eating, liver cells are making/breaking down glycogen
making
Between meals, liver cells are making/breaking down glycogen
breaking down
Which hormone is controlling liver function after eating?
insulin
Which hormone is controlling liver funcction between meals?
glucagon
Explain how the liver controls (regulates) glucose supply
The amount of glucose coming into the liver through the hepatic portal vein is extremely variable, but the amount of glucose coming out of the lier in the hepatic vein is constant. Cells in the liver can link together numerous glucose molecules into a large molecules called glycogen.
The nitrogen containing part of an amino acid is the
amino group
Each urea molecule =____ amino acids prepared for cellular respiration
Two
If a person i sburning a lot of fat, the pH of their blood serum will be higher/normal/lower
Lower
On an extreme high-protein low-carb diet, blood will contain high concentrations of ________ and ________
urea and ketones
On an extreme high-protein low-carb diet, blood pH will be higher/normal/lower
Lower
Why do the kidney excrete glucose?
When there is too much glucose in the blood, the kidneys work to get rid of excess.
What is abnormal in urine from a person on a high-protein low-car diet?
very high ketones and low pH
What abnormalities are present in urine of all three people with health problems?
very high ketones and low pH
What abnormalities are present in urine of all three people with health problems?
high ketones and low pH
Why does anorexia weaken the heart?
Because you begin to break down your muscles to get ATP--therefore, the heart loses its strength.
Why is there less oxygen in exhaled air?
When you breathe in you inhale oxygen, the oxygen is used for cellular respiration. The waste products of cellular respiration is CO2 which is released when we exhale.
Means close or closer to the body
Proximal
Means far or farther from the body
Distal
Means toward the front or belly side of the body
Ventral
Means toward the back side of the body
Dorsal
Means toward the middle of the body
Medial
Means toward the sides of the body
Lateral
Forms along the central nervous system
Axial Skeleton
Major division of axial skeleton are
skull, jaw, backbone, ribs, and sternum
The bones of the arms and legs and bones called the girdles that support the limbs
Appendicular skeleton
Originates along the sternum and inserts on the humerus
Pectoralis
Originates on the pectoral girdle and inserts on the humerus
Deltoid
Originates along the middle of the back above the lumbar vertebrae and inserts on the proximal end of the humerus
Latissimus Dorsi
Originates from two points on the scapula and inserts on the radius just in front of the elbow
Biceps
Originates on fom the scapula and the back surface of the humerus and inserts on part of the ulna that projects in bakc of the elbow.
Triceps
Orginate from the pelvic girdle, sacrum, and coccyz and inserts on the greater tronchanter of the femur
Gluteal Muscles
Orginates from the pelvic girdle and inserts on the tibia
Rectus Femoris
Originates on the front surface of the femur and inserts on the proximal end of the tibia
Quadriceps Femoris Group
Originates from teh pelvic girdles and inserts on the back of the tibia just below the knee.
Hamstring Group
Orginates from the sides of the femur just above the knee and inserts on the calcaneum.
Gastrocnemius
Originates along the front of the tibia and inserts on the first metatarsal and the adjacent tarsals.
Tibialis Anterior