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75 Cards in this Set

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Anarchy
a political system without a single central authority; ex. international system.
Authoritarianism
a type of restrictive governmental system where people are under the rule of an individual, such as a dictator or king, or a group, such as a party or military junta.
Bipolar
a type of international system with two roughly equal actors or coalitions of actors that divide the international system into two poles.
Bureaucracy
division of labor, roles assigned according to expertise, hierarchy, standard operating procedures.
Bush Doctrine
(2002) President Bush’s policy that emphasized military pre-emption, military superiority, unilateral action, and a commitment to “extending democracy, liberty, and security to all regions”; departure from the policies of deterrence and containment.
Capitalism
an economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods, competition, and profit incentives.
Chicken game
two drivers both headed for a single lane bridge from opposite directions; first to swerve loses.
Cold War
the confrontation that emerged following WWII between bipolar superpowers, Soviet Union and US; no direct conflict took place; era of great tensions and global division.
Colonialism
a policy by which a state or empire extends or maintains control over foreign lands, either by (a) moving people from the dominant country to the new lands, and/or (b) ruling the locals from outside, playing some against the others.
Communism
originated in the works of Engels and Marx; idea that oppressed working class would eventually organize and revolt against those who owned the means of production; Soviet Union and China; state owns means of production.
Containment
a policy of global opposition to the Soviet Union and other communist countries.
Crisis
decisions taken by high-level, small groups.
Cuban Missile Crisis
(1962) a confrontation between the U.S. and Soviet Union over the presence of missile sites in Cuba.
Detente
cold war policy involving US, Soviet Union and China; sought to open relations among countries and ease tension.
Democracy
ideology of a body governed by and for the people; also the type of governmental system a country has in terms of free and fair elections and levels of participation.
Division of labor
a production process in which a worker or group of workers is assigned a specialized task in order to increase efficiency.
Evolution
generation and variation among units within a system, selection (failure) eliminates some units, remaining units and arrangements are the next step on the path.
Fascism
ideology that advocates extreme nationalism, heightened sense of national belonging or ethnic identity.
Feudalism
medieval political system of smaller units, such as principalities, dukedoms, and baronies, ruled by minor royalty.
Game
structure in which outcomes are affected by the interaction of choices by two or more players.
Globalization
the increasing interdependence, integration and interaction among people and corporations in disparate locations around the world.
Government
a type of governing political body; also the specific regime in power, such as the government of a particular leader.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
the value of all goods and services produced within a country.
Gross World Product (GWP)
the value of all goods and services produced within the world.
Groupthink
pressure within organizations to achieve consensus by agreeing with the prevailing opinion, especially the view of the leader.
Hegemonic war
war to establish and/or maintain hegemony.
Hegemony
the domination of the world (or a significant region) by a single state.
Heuristic device
a range of psychological strategies that allow individuals to simplify complex decisions; ex. evaluating people and events in terms of how well they coincide with your own belief system, stereotypes, or analogies.
Imperialism
the process of extending a state or empire by territorial acquisition or by political and economic dominance.
Intergovernmental organization (IGO)
membership is made up of states; ≈ 300; ex. the United Nations (global), the European Union (regional).
Iterated game
a repeated game.
League of Nations
the first, true general international organization; existed between the end of WWI and the beginning of WWII; immediate predecessor of the United Nations.
Level of analysis
individual-level analysis, state-level analysis, system-level analysis.
Liberalism
internationalist, centralization, globalization, peace, economic issues.
Multilateralism
multiple countries working together on a given issue.
Multinational corporation (MNC)
private enterprises that have production subsidiaries or branches in more than one country.
Multipolar
a world political system in which power is primarily held by four or more international actors.
Mutual Assured Destruction
a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender.
Nation
a group with a common identity.
Nationalism
the sense of political self that makes people feel patriotic about their country.
Neoliberal institutionalism
politically centered; cooperation.
Neorealism
belief that the distribution across and shifting of power among states in the anarchical international system is a causal factor that determines the actions of states and, thus, the dynamics of world politics.
Non-iterated game
a game that is not repeated.
Non-zero-sum game
a situation in which one or more players, even all players, can gain without offsetting losses for any other player or players.
Nongovernmental organization (NGO)
individuals as members; ex. Human Rights Watch (laudable), al Qaeda (villainous), the Roman Catholic Church (ancient), Families of Victims of Involuntary Disappearance—FIND (nearly new).
Norm
a principle of right action that is binding on members of a group and that serves to regulate the behavior of the members of that group.
Operational code
a perceptual phenomenon that describes how an individual acts and responds when faced with specific types of situations.
Politics
the social activity of making and enforcing collective decisions; often the domain of power.
Political power
the ability to get another actor to act in a way you desire when it otherwise might not; sources: ideas and beliefs, force and threats, wealth and exchange.
Reagan Doctrine
U.S. provided aid to anti-communist resistance movements.
Realism
nationalist, decentralization, fragmentation, war, security issues.
Republic
a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them.
Role
how an individual’s position influences his/her thinking and actions.
Security dilemma
refers to a situation wherein two or more states are drawn into conflict, possibly even war, over security concerns, even though none of the states actually desire conflict.
Self-determination
the right and/or ability of a nation to rule itself.
Self-fulfilling prophecy
explains how a belief or expectation whether correct or not, affects the outcome of a situation or the way a person (or group) will behave.
Social structure
roles, rules, resources.
Socialism
a theory or system of social organization in which the means of producing and distributing goods is owned collectively or by a centralized government that often plans and controls the economy.
Sovereignty
recognizing no higher authority.
Standard operating procedure (SOP)
standardized procedures used in bureaucracy.
State
an organized political entity, occupies a definable territory, exercises relative independence, commands the primary loyalty of people, reserves the right to use force, recognized as a sovereign unit by other states.
System
consists of elements, interactions among elements and emergent properties (characteristics of the whole that do not belong to any particular part).
Theocracy
a political system that is organized, governed, and defined by spiritual leaders and their religious beliefs.
Truman Doctrine
(1947) President Truman’s policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology.
Treaty of Versailles
(1920) the treaty forced on Germany by the Allied powers after the end of WWI which demanded excessive reparations from the Germans.
United Nations (UN)
an international body created with the intention to maintain peace through the cooperation of its member-states; addresses human welfare issues such as the environment, human rights, population, and health; headquarters located in NYC; established following WWII to supersede the League of Nations.
Unilateralism
a tendency of nations to conduct their foreign affairs independently, characterized by minimal consultation and involvement with other nations, even their allies.
Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD)
biological, chemical, nuclear, and radiological weapons.
World War I
(1914-1918) war fought mainly in Europe and the Middle East, between the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire) and the Allies (Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, U.S., Japan); ended with the collapse of the Central Powers.
World War II
(1939-1945) war between the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) and the Allies (France, Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.); began with the German invasion of Poland and ended with the surrender of Germany and Japan.
Zero-sum game
a contest in which gains by one player can only be achieved by equal losses from other players.
# recognized states?
≈ 200.
GWP?
GR?
GWP per capita?
≈ $60 trillion.
≈ 5%.
≈ $9500.
Human population?
GR?
≈ 6,525,170,264.
≈ 1.14%.
Fertility rate?
Life expectancy?
≈ 2.6 children/woman.
≈ 65 years.